c. 1500, "a literary work (originally in verse) intended to ridicule prevailing vice or folly by scornful or contemptuous expression," from French satire (14c.) and directly from Latin satira "satire; poetic medley," earlier satura, in lanx satura "mixed dish, dish filled with various kinds of fruit," literally "full dish," from fem. of satur "sated" (from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy").
The word acquired its literary sense, in Latin, in reference to a collection of poems in various meters on a variety of subjects by the late republican poet Ennius. The little that survives of his verse does not now seem particularly satiric, but in classical Latin the word was used especially of a poem which assailed various vices one after another.
In modern general use, "a denouncing or deriding speech or writing full of sarcasm, ridicule, irony, etc." (all of which can express satire). The broader meaning "fact or circumstance that makes someone or something look ridiculous" is by 1690s.
Satire, n. An obsolete kind of literary composition in which the vices and follies of the author's enemies were expounded with imperfect tenderness. In this country satire never had more than a sickly and uncertain existence, for the soul of it is wit, wherein we are dolefully deficient, the humor that we mistake for it, like all humor, being tolerant and sympathetic. Moreover, although Americans are 'endowed by their Creator' with abundant vice and folly, it is not generally known that these are reprehensible qualities, wherefore the satirist is popularly regarded as a sour-spirited knave, and his every victim's outcry for codefendants evokes a national assent. [Ambrose Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary," 1911]
Proper satire is distinguished, by the generality of the reflections, from a lampoon which is aimed against a particular person, but they are too frequently confounded. [Johnson]
[I]n whatever department of human expression, wherever there is objective truth there is satire [Wyndham Lewis, "Rude Assignment," 1950]
"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of satire; containing or marked by satire," c. 1500, from French satirique, from Late Latin satiricus, from satira (see satire (n.)). Earlier (late 14c.) as a noun meaning "a writer of satires," translating Latin satiricus.
c. 1600, "to write satires," an intransitive sense, now obsolete, from French satiriser, from the noun in French (see satire (n.)). The transitive sense of "assail with satire, expose (someone or something) to censure or ridicule with satiric wit" is by 1630s. As Related: Satirized; satirizing.
1775, "of or pertaining to the writings or style of 16c. French author François Rabelais," whose writings "are distinguished by exuberance of imagination and language combined with extravagance and coarseness of humor and satire." [OED]
"poetical recantation, poem in which the poet retracts invective contained in a former satire," 1590s, from French palinod (16c.) or directly from Late Latin palinodia, from Greek palinōidia "poetic retraction," from palin "again, back" (see palindrome) + ōidē "song" (see ode). Related: Palinodical; palinodial.