Etymology
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persistent (adj.)

1723, "enduring," at first mostly in botany, from persistence or from Latin persistentem (nominative persistens), present participle of persistere (see persist). Meaning "continuing in spite of opposition, warning, etc." is by 1830. Shakespeare used persistive. Related: Persistently.

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obstructionism (n.)

"the practice of systematic or persistent obstruction," especially in a legislative body, 1868, from obstruction + -ism.

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priapism (n.)

"morbidly persistent erection of the penis," 1620s, from Late Latin priapismus, from Greek priapismos (also "lewdness"), from priapizein "to be lewd," from Priapos, the name of the god of male reproductive power. See priapic + -ism.

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ostinato 

in musical phrases, "recurring frequently, repeated," 1876, from Italian ostinato "obstinate, persistent," from Latin obstinatus "resolute, resolved, determined, inflexible, stubborn," past participle of obstinare "to persist" (see obstinate). 

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pin-oak (n.)

type of tree found in wet places in the Eastern U.S., from pin (n.) + oak; "so named in allusion to the persistent dead branches, which resemble pins driven into the trunk" [Century Dictionary].

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pertinacious (adj.)

"unyielding, persistent, resolute" (in holding to a purpose, opinion, course of action, etc.), 1620s, from pertinacy "stubbornness" (late 14c.), from Latin pertinacia, from pertinax "very firm, tenacious" (see pertinacity) + -ous. Related: Pertinaciously.

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perseverant (adj.)

mid-14c. perseveraunt (implied in perseverantly) "constant, steadfast; persistent, unflagging," from Old French persévérant (12c.), present participle of persévérer (see persevere). Marked as obsolete in Century Dictionary (1895). Related: Perseverantly.

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dogged (adj.)

"having the qualities of a dog" (mostly in a negative sense, "mean, surly, contemptible"), c. 1300, from dog (n.). Meaning "persistent, silently obstinate" is from 1779. Hence doggedly (late 14c.), "cruelly, maliciously;" later "with a dog's persistence" (1773). Related: Doggedness.

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insistent (adj.)
1620s, "standing on something," from Latin insistentem (nominative insistens), present participle of insistere "stand on," also "urge, insist," from in- "upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + sistere "take a stand" (see assist (v.)). Meaning "persistent, urgent, demanding attention" is from 1868. Related: Insistently.
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contumacy (n.)

"willful and persistent resistance to legitimate authority," c. 1200, from Old French contumace and directly from Latin contumacia "perseverance in one's purpose or opinions," generally in a bad sense, "arrogance, inflexibility, haughtiness, insolence," also especially "obstinate disobedience to a judicial order," abstract noun from stem of contumax (see contumely).

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