Etymology
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Muslim (n.)

"one who professes Islam," 1610s, from Arabic muslim "one who submits" (to the faith), from root of aslama "he resigned." Related to Islam. From 1777 as an adjective.

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Mussulman (n.)

also Musselman, archaic word for "a Muslim," 1560s, from Turkish musulman, from Persian musulman (adj.), from Arabic muslim (see Muslim) + adjective suffix -an.

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salaam 

Arabic or Muslim greeting, 1610s, from Arabic salam (also in Urdu, Persian), literally "peace" (compare Hebrew shalom); in full, (as)salam 'alaikum "peace be upon you," from base of salima "he was safe" (compare Islam, Muslim). Formerly used generically of ceremonious salutations in India and elsewhere in Asia. As a verb, "to salute with a 'salaam,'" by 1690s.

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Islamist (n.)

1850, "a Muslim," from Islam + -ist. Later also "scholar of Islamic studies." By 1962 specifically as "strict fundamentalist Sunni Muslim." Islamism is attested from 1747 as "the religion of the Muslims, Islam." Islamite "a Muslim" is from 1786 (1768 as an adjective); Islamize/Islamise (v.) is from 1849.

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khatib (n.)

Muslim preacher, 1620s, from Arabic, from khataba "to preach."

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Mohammedan (adj.)

"pertaining to Mohammed" (q.v.). As a noun, "a Muslim." Related: Mohammedanism.

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mujahidin (n.)

also mujahideen, "Muslim fundamentalist guerrilla," 1958, in a Pakistani context, from Persian and Arabic, plural of mujahid "one who fights in a jihad" (q.v.); in modern use, "Muslim guerrilla insurgent."

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Moro 

"Muslim Malay of the Philippines," 1886, from Spanish Moro, literally "Moor" (see Moor).

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ulema (n.)

"scholars of Muslim religious law," 1680s, from Arabic 'ulema "learned men, scholars," plural of 'alim "learned," from 'alama "to know."

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