"one who professes Islam," 1610s, from Arabic muslim "one who submits" (to the faith), from root of aslama "he resigned." Related to Islam. From 1777 as an adjective.
also Musselman, archaic word for "a Muslim," 1560s, from Turkish musulman, from Persian musulman (adj.), from Arabic muslim (see Muslim) + adjective suffix -an.
Arabic or Muslim greeting, 1610s, from Arabic salam (also in Urdu, Persian), literally "peace" (compare Hebrew shalom); in full, (as)salam 'alaikum "peace be upon you," from base of salima "he was safe" (compare Islam, Muslim). Formerly used generically of ceremonious salutations in India and elsewhere in Asia. As a verb, "to salute with a 'salaam,'" by 1690s.
also mujahideen, "Muslim fundamentalist guerrilla," 1958, in a Pakistani context, from Persian and Arabic, plural of mujahid "one who fights in a jihad" (q.v.); in modern use, "Muslim guerrilla insurgent."
among Arabic or Muslim peoples, "chief of a family or tribe; a ruling prince," 1590s, from Arabic amir "commander" (see admiral).