Etymology
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Chesterfield 
Derbyshire town, Old English Cesterfelda, literally "open land near a Roman fort," from ceaster "fort" (see Chester) + feld "open land" (see field (n.)). The cigarette brand was named for Chesterfield County, Virginia, U.S. As a kind of overcoat and a kind of sofa (both 19c.), the name comes from earls of Chesterfield. Philip Stanhope, the fourth Earl of Chesterfield (1694-1773) was the writer on manners and etiquette.
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Maori (n.)

"Polynesian inhabitant of New Zealand," 1843, native name, said to mean "normal, natural, ordinary, of the usual kind." As an adjective by 1849.

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Gruyere 
kind of cheese, 1802, from Gruyère, the name of the Swiss town and surrounding district where the cheese is made. The place name is said to be ultimately from Latin grus "crane."
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Linzertorte (n.)
kind of jam-filled tart, 1906, from German Linzertorte, from Linzer (adj.) "of Linz," the city in Austria, + torte "tart" (see torte). The city name probably is ultimately from the Germanic root for "lime tree."
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Marsala (n.)

kind of white wine, 1806, named for the seaport town on the west coast of Sicily, in the region where it is produced, the name of which is said to be from Arabic Mirsa-llahi, literally "the Port of God."

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Chantilly 
town in France near Paris; as a kind of porcelain made there, 1774; in reference to a delicate lace originally made there, 1831. The place name is Medieval Latin Chantileium, from the Gallo-Roman personal name Cantilius.
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AstroTurf (n.)

1966, proprietary name for a kind of artificial grass, so called because it was used first in the Houston, Texas, Astrodome, indoor sports stadium. See astro- + turf. Houston was the site of the control center of the U.S. space program.

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McIntosh 

kind of red-skinned eating apples, 1874, named for John McIntosh (b. 1777), Ontario farmer who found them in 1796 while clearing woodland on his farm and began to cultivate them. The surname is Gaelic Mac an toisich "son of the chieftain."

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Gibraltar 
1590s, ancient Calpe, captured 710 C.E. by Saracen leader Tariq, renamed Jebel el Tarik "the Mountain of Tarik," hence the English name. A British possession since 1704. Figurative of impregnability by 1856. Formerly also the name of a kind of rock-candy (1831).
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Mother Hubbard 

in reference to a kind of loose, full gown worn by women, 1878, from Old Mother Hubbard, nursery rhyme, which was printed 1805, written by Sarah Catherine Martin (1768-1826) but based on earlier material of unknown origin. The name is attested from 1591.

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