Etymology
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herb (n.)

c. 1300, erbe "non-woody plant," especially a leafy vegetable used for human food, from Old French erbe "grass, herb, plant fed to animals" (12c., Modern French herbe), from Latin herba "grass, an herb; herbage, turf, weeds" (source also of Spanish yerba, Portuguese herva, Italian erba). The form of the English word was refashioned after Latin since 15c., but the h- was mute until 19c. Slang meaning "marijuana" is attested from 1960s. The native word is wort.

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herbaceous (adj.)

1640s, from Latin herbaceus "grassy," from herba "grass, herbage" (see herb).

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herbicide (n.)

"chemical that kills plants," used to destroy unwanted weeds, etc., 1888, originally a trademark name, from herb + -cide "killer."

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herbal (adj.)

1610s, from Latin herbalis, from herba "grass, herb" (see herb). Earlier as a noun, "book that names and classifies plants" (1510s).

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herbivorous (adj.)

"plant-eating," 1660s, from Modern Latin herbivorus, from Latin herba "a plant" (see herb) + vorare "devour, swallow" (from PIE root *gwora- "food, devouring").

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herbage (n.)

late 14c., "pasture-plants, non-woody plants collectively," from Old French erbage "grass; pasture" (Modern French herbage), or directly from Medieval Latin herbagium; see herb + -age. In law, the natural pasture as distinct from the land itself.

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herbivore (n.)

"plant-eating animal," 1851, from Modern Latin Herbivora (1830) or French herbivore (1748), from neuter plural of Latin herbivorus, from herba "a plant" (see herb) + vorare "devour, swallow" (from PIE root *gwora- "food, devouring").

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arbor (n.1)

c. 1300, herber, "herb garden, pleasure garden," from Old French erbier "field, meadow; kitchen garden," from Latin herba "grass, herb" (see herb). Later "a grassy plot" (mid-14c., a sense also in Old French), "shaded nook, bower formed by intertwining of trees, shrubs, or vines" (mid-14c.). It is probably not from Latin arbor "tree" (see arbor (n.2)), though perhaps that word has influenced its spelling:

[O]riginally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs, a pleasure-ground, garden, subsequently applied to the bower or rustic shelter which commonly occupied the most conspicuous situation in the garden ; and thus the etymological reference to herbs being no longer apparent, the spelling was probably accommodated to the notion of being sheltered by trees or shrubs (arbor). [Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859]

But the change from er- to ar- before consonants in Middle English also reflects a pronunciation shift: compare farm from ferme, harbor from Old English herebeorg.

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H 

eighth letter of the alphabet; it comes from Phoenician, via Greek and Latin. In Phoenician it originally had a rough guttural sound like German Reich or Scottish loch. In Greek at first it had the value of Modern English -h-, and with this value it passed into the Latin alphabet via Greek colonies in Italy. Subsequently in Greek it came to be used for a long "e" sound; the "h" sound being indicated by a fragment of the letter, which later was reduced to the aspiration mark.

In Germanic it was used for the voiceless breath sound when at the beginning of words, and in the middle or at the end of words for the rough guttural sound, which later came to be written -gh.

The sound became totally silent in Vulgar Latin and in the languages that emerged from it; thus the letter was omitted in Old French and Italian, but it was restored pedantically in French and Middle English spelling, and often later in English pronunciation. Thus Modern English has words ultimately from Latin with missing -h- (able, from Latin habile); with a silent -h- (heir, hour); with a formerly silent -h- now often vocalized (humble, humor, herb); and even a few with an unetymological -h- fitted in confusion to words that never had one (hostage, hermit). Relics of the formerly unvoiced -h- persist in pedantic insistence on an historical (object) and in obsolete mine host.

The pronunciation "aitch" was in Old French (ache "name of the letter H"), and is from a presumed Late Latin *accha (compare Italian effe, elle, emme), with the central sound approximating the rough, guttural value of the letter in Germanic. In earlier Latin the letter was called ha. The use in digraphs (as in -sh-, -th-) goes back to the ancient Greek alphabet, which used it in -ph-, -th-, -kh- until -H- took on the value of a long "e" and the digraphs acquired their own characters. The letter passed into Roman use before this evolution, and thus retained there more of its original Semitic value.

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herbalist (n.)

"student of, or dealer in, herbs," 1590s, from herbal + -ist. Earlier such a person might have been called herber (early 13c. as a surname), herbarian (1570s), herbarist, herb-man, herbary (1540s). Fem. formation herb-wife is attested from 1580s.

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