Latin name of Britain, preserved in poetry and as the proper name of the female figure who personifies the place on coinage, etc.
When Britain first, at Heaven's command
Arose from out the azure main;
This was the charter of the land,
And guardian angels sang this strain:
"Rule, Britannia! rule the waves:
"Britons never will be slaves."
[James Thomson, 1740]
German masc. name and surname, literally "folk-rule" (Dutch Diederik), from Old High German Theodric, from theuda "folk, people" (see Teutonic) + rihhi "rule," from Proto-Germanic *rikja "rule," from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule." Variants or familiar forms include Derrick, Dierks, Dieter, Dirk. Compare Theodoric. Theodric the Ostrogoth, who held sway in Italy 493-526, appears in later German tales as Dietrich von Bern (Verona).
masc. proper name, from Old French Reinald (Modern French Renaut, Latinized as Reginaldus), a popular name among the Normans, from Old High German Reginald, the first element related to reckon, the second to Old English wealdan "to rule," from Proto-Germanic *waldan "to rule," source of wield, from PIE root *wal- "to be strong." Related: Reynolds.
masc. proper name, from French Frédéric, from German Friedrich, from Old High German Fridurih, from Proto-Germanic *frithu-rik, literally "peace-rule," from *rik- "rule" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule") + *frithu- "peace" (source also of Old English friðu "peace, truce"), from suffixed form of PIE root *pri- "to be friendly, to love."
Related to the first half of Friday and the second half of afraid, also the second element in Siegfried, Godfrey, Geoffrey. Not a common name in medieval England, found mostly in the eastern counties.
"beautiful young man," 1620s, probably via French Adonis (15c.), from Greek Adōnis, name of the youth beloved by Aphrodite, from Phoenician adon "lord," probably originally "ruler," from base a-d-n "to judge, rule." Adonai is the Hebrew cognate.
also Roderic, masc. proper name, from Old High German Hroderich, literally "ruling in fame," from hruod- "fame, glory" + Proto-Germanic *rikja "rule" (see rich). Italian and Spanish Rodrigo, Russian Rurik are from German.
masc. proper name, from Old Norse Eirikr, literally "honored ruler," from Proto-Germanic *aiza- "honor" + *rik- "ruler" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). The German form is Erich.