Etymology
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Seven Champions (n.)

1590s, the national saints of England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Spain, and Italy, viz. George, Andrew, David, Patrick, Denys, James, and Anthony.

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Peck's bad boy 

"unruly or mischievous child," 1883, from fictional character created by George Wilbur Peck (1840-1916).

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Gallup poll 

1940, from George H. Gallup (1901-1984), U.S. journalist and statistician, who in 1935 set up the American Institute of Public Opinion.

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Big Brother (n.)

"ubiquitous and repressive but apparently benevolent authority" 1949, from George Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four." The phrase big brother for "older brother" is attested by 1833.

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Pap test (n.)

1963, short for Papanicolaou (1947) in reference to George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962), Greek-born U.S. anatomist who developed the technique of examining secreted cells to test for cancer.

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bowie knife (n.)

"heavy-single-edged sheath-knife used early 19c. on the U.S. frontier," 1827, named for its inventor, U.S. fighter and frontiersman Col. James "Jim" Bowie (1799-1836), and properly pronounced "boo-ee."

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Brother Jonathan (n.)

sobriquet for "United States," 1816, often connected with Jonathan Trumbull (1740-1809) of Connecticut, who was called Brother Jonathan by George Washington, who often sought his advice, somehow in reference to 2 Sam i:26.

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big bang (n.)

hypothetical explosive beginning of the universe, developed from the work of astronomers Monsignor Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître and George Gamow; the phrase is first attested 1950 (said to have been used orally in 1949), used by British astronomer Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) in an attempt to explain the idea in laymen's terms.

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fast and loose 

described as "a cheating game played with a stick and a belt or string, so arranged that a spectator would think he could make the latter fast by placing a stick through its intricate folds, whereas the operator could detach it at once." [James O. Halliwell, "Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words," 1847]. The figurative sense (1550s) is recorded earlier than the literal (1570s).

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Star Chamber (n.)

late 14c., apartment in the royal palace at Westminster in which members of the king's council sat to exercise jurisdiction 14-15c., it evolved 15c. into a court of criminal jurisdiction, infamous under James I and Charles I for arbitrary and oppressive proceedings. Abolished 1641. Supposedly so called because gilt stars had been painted on the ceiling. Later there was a star on the door.

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