Etymology
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breakfast (n.)

"first meal of the day," mid-15c., from the verbal phrase; see break (v.) + fast (n.). For vowel shift, see met (v.). An Old English word for it was undernmete (see undern), also morgenmete "morning meal."

Spanish almuerzo "lunch," but formerly and still locally "breakfast," is from Latin admorsus, past participle of admordere "to bite into," from ad "to" + mordēre "to bite" (see mordant). German Frühstück is from Middle High German vruostücke, literally "early bit."

In common with almuerzo, words for "breakfast" tend over time to shift in meaning toward "lunch;" compare French déjeuner "breakfast," later "lunch" (cognate of Spanish desayuno "breakfast"), from Vulgar Latin *disieiunare "to breakfast," from Latin dis- "apart, in a different direction from" + ieiunare, jejunare "fast" (see jejune; also compare dine). Greek ariston in Homer and Herodotus was a meal at the break of day but in classical times taken in the afternoon.

The long/short vowel contrast in break/breakfast represents a common pattern where words from Old English have a long vowel in their modern form but a short vowel as the first element of a compound: Christ/Christmas, holy/holiday, moon/Monday, sheep/shepherd, wild/wilderness, etc.

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breakfast (v.)
1670s, "to eat breakfast;" 1793 as "to supply with breakfast," from breakfast (n.). Related: Breakfasted; breakfasting.
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brunch 

1896, British student slang merger of breakfast and lunch.

ACCORDING to the Lady, to be fashionable nowadays we must "brunch." Truly an excellent portmanteau word, introduced, by the way, last year, by Mr GUY BERINGER, in the now defunct Hunter's Weekly, and indicating a combined breakfast and lunch. At Oxford, however, two years ago, an important distinction was drawn. The combination-meal, when nearer the usual breakfast hour, is "brunch," and, when nearer luncheon, is "blunch." Please don't forget this. [Punch, Aug. 1, 1896]
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Pablum 

proprietary name of a children's breakfast cereal, 1932; see pabulum.

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Postum (n.)

proper name of a coffee substitute, 1895, from a Latinized form of the name of American manufactured foods pioneer Charles William Post (1854-1914), founder of the breakfast cereal company.

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aristology (n.)
"science of dining," 1835, with -ology "study of" + Greek ariston "breakfast, the morning meal" (later "the mid-day meal"), a contraction of a locative ari- (see ere) + *ed- "to eat" (see eat). Related: Aristological; aristologist.
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cheerio (interj.)

upbeat parting exclamation, British, 1896 as cheero; 1918 as cheerio; from cheer. The breakfast cereal Cheerios debuted in 1941 as CheeriOats; the name was shortened in 1945.

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met (v.)
past tense and past participle of meet (v.). Old English long vowels tended to shorten before many consonant clusters. Hence meet/met (earlier mette), five/fifteen, house/husband, break/breakfast.
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corn flakes (n.)

also corn-flakes, cornflakes, type of breakfast cereal, 1902, from corn (n.1) + flake (n.); the process of making them was discovered by American food manufacturer W.K. Kellogg in 1894. Earlier corn flakes was an ingredient in brewing (1890s).

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granola (n.)
by 1967, American English, probably from Italian grano "grain," or granular, with commercial suffix -ola. Earlier, with a capital G-, it was a proprietary name (reg. 1886 by W.K. Kellogg, in use into early 20c.) for a kind of breakfast cereal.
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