LANGUAGE and ETYMOLOGY Linguist-Educator Exchange Gina Cooke, a linguist in education, "strives to provide accurate linguistic information and reliable logical strategies for teachers and learners of the English language in search of evidence about English and its instruction." She strives not in vain. English Language & Usage/Stack Exchange A question-and-answer site "for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts." I get more useful information here on a daily basis than anywhere else. Wordwizard A venerable (in Internet terms) full-service site devoted to origins of English words and phrases and English usage. The forum is helpful and newbie-friendly. Talk the Talk A weekly show about linguistics. Where wit meets wisdom. Languagehat A fine blog by a linguist whose interest reaches beyond the words. The "links" bar is one of the best for language resources. Omniglot Language-related musings by Welsh blogger and linguist Simon Ager. Things to be Happy About Website of linguist Barbara Ann Kipfer, who edited the most recent edition of the "Dictionary of American Slang." Digital Medievalist Celtic Studies Resources from a self-described "opinionated digital medievalist." Lexilogos  (English version) A comprehensive set of dictionaries and other online resources for the study of the languages of the world. Verbix Free online verb conjugator in English, French, German, Italian, Arabic, Japanese, Latin, Spanish, and other languages. Oxford English Dictionary The best there is, but not free. Alphabet Evolution A Semitic script nicked by the Greeks, stripped down to fit Etruscan, and somehow we try to write with this. SPECIFIC The American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots Appendix The latest iteration of the Calvert Watkins list. Indo-European Lexicon: Pokorny Master PIE Etyma From the University of Texas Linguistics Research Center Old English Translator Works both ways -- Old English to Modern, Modern English to Old. Online version of the University of Michigan Middle English Dictionary "[D]escribed as 'the greatest achievement in medieval scholarship in America.' Its 15,000 pages offer a comprehensive analysis of lexicon and usage for the period 1100-1500, based on the analysis of a collection of over three million citation slips, the largest collection of this kind available." Latdict Kevin Mahoney's online Latin dictionary and grammar resource. English Words of Arabic Ancestry Thoughtful and thoroughly researched work. Work in food history  "Historical linguistics, dialectology, sociolinguistics, and food history" by Anthony F. Buccini, Ph.D. Historical Dictionary of Science Fiction.  The Anglo-Norman Online Hub. Dictionaries of the Scots Language  "Scotland’s independent lexicographical body for the Scots language." Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru The standard historical  dictionary of the Welsh language. The vocabulary is defined in Welsh, and English equivalents are also given. Detailed attention is given to variant forms, collocations, and etymology. Chinese Characters Contains the complete text of "Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary," which uses the new (zipu) system of character trees. Chinese Etymology. Online Etymological Dictionary of Spanish A free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Spanish Language. Italian Etymology A searchable online version of the 1907 "Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana" by Ottorino Pianigiani. English-Persian Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics "Aims at contributing to the Persian language by creating a comprehensive dictionary of astronomy and astrophysics." Svenska Akademiens Ordbok  Svenska Akademiens Ordbok Svenska Akademiens Ordbok Excellent online Swedish etymology source. The German etymological dictionary of the Brothers Grimm Das Deutsche Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm auf CD-ROM und im Internet. Alphabetical list of German surnames and explanations of their origin and meaning. Historische woordenboeken Nederlands en Fries (Dutch).  Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew Web site for a book on etymologies of multisourced words in various languages, e.g. English, Israeli, Hebrew, Mandarin, Japanese, Turkish, Yiddish and Arabic. Word Spy Recently coined words and phrases. The Jargon File Hacker slang, hacker culture, techspeak, and more. Sumerian Language Page English Synonyms Explained and Illustrated By J.H.A. Günther. SearchReSearch "A blog about  search, search skills, teaching search, learning how to search, learning how to use Google effectively, learning how to do research. It also covers a good deal of sensemaking and information foraging." FOR WRITERS Word Stuff Writing Links and Links for Writers. The King's English A classic work on usage by H.W. Fowler. Just About Write An excellent site full of good advice on writing and publishing. DIVERSIONS The Eggcorn Database A collection of unusual English spellings of the sort that have come to be called "eggcorns." A spin-off from Language Log.  Wikipoem.  The Public Domain Review. "Molly Brazen"  Ladle Rat Rotten Hut An Anguish Languish lesson as originated by Professor Howard L. Chace, performed live by actor Drew Letchworth. Speculative Grammarian The premier scholarly journal featuring research in the neglected field of satirical linguistics. Unlikely phrases from real phrasebooks For those moments when you absolutely, positively need to say "I play the clarinet" in Chinese ("Wô lá danhuángguân"). Awful Library Books The funhouse of deaccessioning. You didn't really forward that e-mail, did you? No doubt our attempts at Japanese are even more amusing. Devil's Dictionary The acid wit of Ambrose Bierce. A library of misheard lyrics. Gadsby The greatest novel ever written without using the letter "E." Flatland A classic now available online. A glossary and etymological dictionary of obsolete and uncommon words By William Toone. The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato By Stephen Pearl Andrews.


PRINCIPAL SOURCES Barnhart, Robert K., ed., Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, H.W. Wilson Co., 1988. Beekes, Robert, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Netherlands, Brill, 2010.  Buck, Carl Darling, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, University of Chicago, 1949, reprinted 1988. Cassidy, Frederic G., and Hall, Joan Houston, eds., Dictionary of American Regional English, Harvard University Press, 1985-2002. de Vaan, Michiel, Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, vol. 7, of Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, Alexander Lubotsky ed., Leiden: Brill, 2008. Farmer, John S., Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, London, 1890. Fowler, H.W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford University Press, 1926. Gamillscheg, Ernst, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Französischen Sprache, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1928. Grose, Francis, A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, London, 1785; 2nd ed., London, 1788; 3rd ed., London, 1796; expanded by others as Lexicon Balatronicum. A Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit, and Pickpocket Eloquence, London, 1811. Hall, J.R. Clark, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, 1894, reprint with supplement by Herbert D. Meritt, University of Toronto Press, 1984. Hindley, Alan, Frederick W. Langley, Brian J. Levy, Old French-English Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, 2000. Johnson, Samuel, A Dictionary of the English Language, London, 1755. Kipfer, Barbara Ann, ed., and Robert L. Chapman, Dictionary of American Slang, 4th ed., HarperCollins, 2007. Klein, Dr. Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1971. Lewis, Charlton T., and Short, Charles, A New Latin Dictionary, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1891. Liberman, Anatoly, Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology, University of Minnesota Press, 2008. Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott, eds., Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford University Press, 1883. McSparran, Frances, chief editor, The Middle English Compendium, University of Michigan, 2006. Room, Adrian, Place Names of the World, 2nd ed., McFarland & Co., 2006. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press, 1989. Watkins, Calvert, ed., The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000. Weekley, Ernest, An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, John Murray, 1921; reprint 1967, Dover Publications. Whitney, William Dwight, ed., The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, New York: The Century Co., 1902. Zoëga, Geir T., A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, reprint, University of Toronto Press, 2004.   OTHER SOURCES Agnes, Michael, ed. in chief, Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th ed., MacMillan, 1999. Allen, Richard Hinckley, Star Names and Their Meanings, London: Stechert, 1899. Andrews, E.A., LL.D., A Copious and Critical Latin-English Lexicon, New York, 1851. Ayto, John, Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, 1990. ----------, 20th Century Words, Oxford University Press, 1999. ----------, The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink, 2nd ed., Oxford, 2002. Bammesberger, Alfred, English Etymology, Heidelberg, Carl Winter, 1984. Bardsley, Charles Wareing, English Surnames, 5th ed., London: Chatto and Windus, 1915. Barrère, Albert, Argot and Slang, London, 1889. Barrère, Albert, and Charles G. Leland, A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant, Ballantyne Press, 1890. Bartlett, John Russell, Dictionary of Americanisms, 2nd ed., Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1859. Boutkan, Dirk, and Sjoerd Michiel Siebinga, Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden: Brill, 2005. Brachet, A., An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language, translated by G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1882. Bright, William, Native American Placenames of the United States, University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. Brockett, John Trotter, A Glossary of North Country Words, Newcastle, 1829. Craigie, Sir William A., and James R. Hulbert, A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles, University of Chicago Press, 1938. Diez, Friederich, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen, Bonn, 1853. Donkin, T.C., An Etymological Dictionary of the Romance Languages, Edinburgh, 1864. Farmer, John S., Musa Pedestris, Three Centuries of Canting Songs and Slang Rhymes, privately printed in Holland and London, 1896. Flood, W.E., The Origins of Chemical Names, London: Oldbourne Book Co., 1963. Fowler, H.W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 2nd ed., revised by Sir Ernest Gowers, Oxford University Press, 1965. Gelling, Margaret, Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England, 3rd ed.,  Chichester: Phillimore & Co., 1997. Gildersleeve, Basil L., Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, Macmillan & Co., 1895. Gordon, E.V., An Introduction to Old Norse, 2nd ed., rev., Oxford University Press, 1956. Grimm, Jacob, and Wilhelm Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1911. Hatefeld, Adolphe, & Arsène Darmesteter, Dictionnaire Général de la Langue Française, Paris: Librairie Delagrave, 1926. Herman, József, Vulgar Latin (Le latin vulgaire), translated by Roger Wright, Penn State, 2000. Hoblyn, Richard Dennis, A Dictionary of Term Used in Medicine, 2nd ed., London, 1844. Holthausen, Ferd., Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Englischen Sprache, Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1927. Jamieson, John, D.D., A Dictionary of the Scottish Language (abridged edition), Edinburgh, 1846. Johnson, Francis, A Dictionary of Persian, Arabic, and English, London, 1852. Karttunen, Frances, An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl, University of Texas, 1983. Kent, Roland G., Old Persian, New Haven, Conn., American Oriental Society, 1953. Kluge, Friedrich, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 24 durchgesehene, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 2002. Lass, Roger, Old English, A Historical Linguistic Companion, Cambridge University Press, 1994. Lyovin, Anatole V., An Introduction to the Languages of the World, Oxford University Press, 1997. Mencken, H.L., The American Language, 4th ed.,  Alfred A. Knopf, 1965. Mills, A.D., A Dictionary of English Place Names, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Monier-Williams, Sir Monier, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically Arranged, Oxford University Press, 1899. Niermeyer, J.F. and van de Kieft, C., Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus, E.J. Brill, Amsterdam, 1976. Palmer, the Rev. Abram Smythe, Folk-Etymology, London, George Bell and Sons, 1882. Partridge, Eric, Slang To-day and Yesterday, 3rd ed., Barnes & Noble, 1950. Pickering, John, A Vocabulary, or Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to be Peculiar to the United States of America, Boston, 1816. Pokorny, Julius, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Tübingen: A. Francke Verlag, 1959. Rawson, Hugh, Wicked Words, Crown Publishers, 1989. Ringe, Don, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford, 2006. Simpson, D.P., Cassell's New Latin Dictionary, Funk & Wagnall's, 1959. Smith, William, ed., A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: John Murray, 1878. Smyth, Adm. William Henry, The Sailor's Word-book: An Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms, London, Blackie and Son, 1867. Thayer, Joseph Henry, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, American Book Co., 1889. Thornton, Richard H., An American Glossary, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1912. Tucker, T.G., Etymological Dictionary of Latin, Ares Publishers, 1976 (reprint of 1931 edition). Venezky, Richard L., The American Way of Spelling, The Guilford Press, 1999. Watts, Victor, The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Wedgwood, Hensleigh, A Dictionary of English Etymology, 3rd ed., Macmillan & Co., New York, 1878. Wilson, R.M., and Reaney, Percy H., Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 1995. Wright, Joseph, The English Dialect Dictionary, London, 1900. Wright, Thomas, ed., Popular Treatises on Science Written During the Middle Ages, London, 1841.