Barnhart, Robert K., ed., Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, H.W. Wilson Co., 1988.

Beekes, Robert, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Netherlands, Brill, 2010. 

Boutkan, Dirk, and Sjoerd Michiel Siebinga, Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden: Brill, 2005. 

Buck, Carl Darling, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, University of Chicago, 1949, reprinted 1988.

de Vaan, Michiel, Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, vol. 7, of Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, Alexander Lubotsky ed., Leiden: Brill, 2008.

Farmer, John S., Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, London, 1890.

Fowler, H.W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford University Press, 1926.

Grose, Francis, A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, London, 1785; 2nd ed., London, 1788; 3rd ed., London, 1796; expanded by others as Lexicon Balatronicum. A Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit, and Pickpocket Eloquence, London, 1811.

Hall, J.R. Clark, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, 1894, reprint with supplement by Herbert D. Meritt, University of Toronto Press, 1984.

Hindley, Alan, Frederick W. Langley, Brian J. Levy, Old French-English Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Klein, Dr. Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1971.

Lewis, Charlton T., and Short, Charles, A New Latin Dictionary, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1891.

Liberman, Anatoly, Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology, University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott, eds., Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford University Press, 1883.

McSparran, Frances, chief editor, The Middle English Compendium, University of Michigan, 2006.

Room, Adrian, Place Names of the World, 2nd ed., McFarland & Co., 2006.

The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, Whitney, William Dwight, ed., New York: The Century Co., 1902. 

The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press, 1989.

Watkins, Calvert, ed., The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000.

Zoëga, Geir T., A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, reprint, University of Toronto Press, 2004.



Agnes, Michael, ed. in chief, Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th ed., MacMillan, 1999.

Allen, Richard Hinckley, Star Names and Their Meanings, London: Stechert, 1899.

Ayto, John, Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, 1990.

----------, 20th Century Words, Oxford University Press, 1999.

----------, The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink, 2nd ed., Oxford, 2002.

Bammesberger, Alfred, English Etymology, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1984.

Barrère, Albert, Argot and Slang, London, 1889.

----------, and Charles G. Leland, A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant, Ballantyne Press, 1890.

Bartlett, John Russell, Dictionary of Americanisms, 2nd ed., Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1859.

Blount, Thomas, Glossographia, 1656, facsimile reprint (Anglistica & Americana series), Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, Germany, and New York, 1972.

Brachet, A., An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language, translated by G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1882.

Bright, William, Native American Placenames of the United States, University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Brockett, John Trotter, A Glossary of North Country Words, Newcastle, 1829.

Cassidy, Frederic G., and Hall, Joan Houston, eds., Dictionary of American Regional English, Harvard University Press, 1985-2002. 

Craigie, Sir William A., and James R. Hulbert, A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles, University of Chicago Press, 1938.

Diez, Friederich, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen, Bonn, 1853.

Donkin, T.C., An Etymological Dictionary of the Romance Languages, Edinburgh, 1864.

Farmer, John S., Musa Pedestris, Three Centuries of Canting Songs and Slang Rhymes, privately printed in Holland and London, 1896.

Flood, W.E., The Origins of Chemical Names, London: Oldbourne Book Co., 1963.

Fowler, H.W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 2nd ed., revised by Sir Ernest Gowers, Oxford University Press, 1965.

Gamillscheg, Ernst, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Französischen Sprache, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1928. 

Gelling, Margaret, Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England, 3rd ed.,  Chichester: Phillimore & Co., 1997.

Gordon, E.V., An Introduction to Old Norse, 2nd ed., rev., Oxford University Press, 1956.

Grimm, Jacob, and Wilhelm Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1911.

Hatefeld, Adolphe, & Arsène Darmesteter, Dictionnaire Général de la Langue Française, Paris: Librairie Delagrave, 1926.

Herman, József, Vulgar Latin (Le latin vulgaire), translated by Roger Wright, Penn State, 2000.

Hoblyn, Richard Dennis, A Dictionary of Term Used in Medicine, 2nd ed., London, 1844.

Holthausen, Ferd., Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Englischen Sprache, Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1927.

Jamieson, John, D.D., A Dictionary of the Scottish Language (abridged edition), Edinburgh, 1846.

Johnson, Francis, A Dictionary of Persian, Arabic, and English, London, 1852.

Johnson, Samuel, A Dictionary of the English Language, London, 1755. 

Karttunen, Frances, An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl, University of Texas, 1983.

Kent, Roland G., Old Persian, New Haven, Conn., American Oriental Society, 1953.

Kipfer, Barbara Ann, ed., and Robert L. Chapman, Dictionary of American Slang, 4th ed., HarperCollins, 2007. 

Kluge, Friedrich, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 24 durchgesehene, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 2002.

Lass, Roger, Old English, A Historical Linguistic Companion, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Lyovin, Anatole V., An Introduction to the Languages of the World, Oxford University Press, 1997.

Mencken, H.L., The American Language, 4th ed.,  Alfred A. Knopf, 1965.

Mills, A.D., A Dictionary of English Place Names, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Monier-Williams, Sir Monier, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically Arranged, Oxford University Press, 1899.

Niermeyer, J.F. and van de Kieft, C., Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus, E.J. Brill, Amsterdam, 1976.

Palmer, the Rev. Abram Smythe, Folk-Etymology, London, George Bell and Sons, 1882.

Partridge, Eric, Slang To-day and Yesterday, 3rd ed., Barnes & Noble, 1950.

Pickering, John, A Vocabulary, or Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to be Peculiar to the United States of America, Boston, 1816.

Pokorny, Julius, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Tübingen: A. Francke Verlag, 1959.

Rawson, Hugh, Wicked Words, Crown Publishers, 1989.

Ringe, Don, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford, 2006.

Simpson, D.P., Cassell's New Latin Dictionary, Funk & Wagnall's, 1959.

Smith, William, ed., A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: John Murray, 1878.

Smyth, Adm. William Henry, The Sailor's Word-book: An Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms, London, Blackie and Son, 1867.

Thayer, Joseph Henry, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, American Book Co., 1889.

Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth, A Glossary of Greek Fishes, Oxford, 1947.

Thornton, Richard H., An American Glossary, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1912.

Tucker, T.G., Etymological Dictionary of Latin, Ares Publishers, 1976 (reprint of 1931 edition).

Venezky, Richard L., The American Way of Spelling, The Guilford Press, 1999.

Watts, Victor, The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Wedgwood, Hensleigh, A Dictionary of English Etymology, 3rd ed., Macmillan & Co., New York, 1878.

Weekley, Ernest, An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, John Murray, 1921; reprint 1967, Dover Publications. 

Wilson, R.M., and Reaney, Percy H., Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 1995.

Wright, Joseph, The English Dialect Dictionary, London, 1900.

Wright, Thomas, ed., Popular Treatises on Science Written During the Middle Ages, London, 1841.  

----------, Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies, 2nd ed., Richard Paul Wülker, ed., London, 1884, reprinted 1968, Darmstadt.


Latest stories