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vampire (n.)

幽灵般的存在于人的身体中, 通过在夜间离开坟墓, 在活人睡觉时吸食活人的热血来保持半点生命力, 1732年, vampyre, 来自法语 vampire (18世纪) 或德语 Vampir (1732年, 就像英语单词首先在匈牙利吸血鬼的记载中), 来自匈牙利 vampir. 来自旧教会斯拉夫语 opiri (也是塞尔维亚语 vampir, 保加利亚语 vapir, 乌克兰语 uper), 斯拉夫语言学家Franc Miklošič说是最后一个来自喀山鞑靼语 ubyr “女巫”, 但这一语言领域的专家Max Vasmer认为在语音上值得怀疑.

在19世纪末的哥特式小说中, 东欧的生物在英语中流行, 然而, 早在1196年就有零星的英语记载, 记载着夜行的, 血淋淋的, 传播瘟疫的不死尸体. 形象意义上的“捕食他人的人” 出自1741年. 1774年由法国生物学家布丰应用于南美洲的一种吸血蝙蝠. 相关内容: Vampiric.

MR. D'Anvers tells of a Conversation he had about a certain Prodigy, mention'd in the News Papers of March last, viz. that in the Village of Medreyga in Hungary, certain dead Bodies (call'd there Vampyres) had kill'd several Persons by sucking out all their Blood : That Arnold Paul, an Heyduke, having kill'd four Persons after he was dead, his Body was taken up 40 Days after, which bled at the Nose, Mouth and Ears : That, according to Custom, they drove a Stake thro' his Heart, at which he gave horrid Groan, and lost a great deal of Blood. And that all such as have been tormented or kill'd by Vampyres, become Vampyres when they are dead. [London Journal, May 20, 1732, quoted in Weekly Essays, May 1732]

关于这个故事的传播, 或许可以追溯到1732年出版的一本小册子, 小册子的扉页上写着: Dissertationem De Hominibus Post Mortem Sanguisugis, Vulgo Sic Dictis Vampyren, Auctoritate Inclyti Philosophorum Ordinis, Publico Eruditorum Examini Die XXX. Aug. An. MDCCXXXII. Submittent M. Io. Christophorus Pohlius, Lignicens. Silesius Et Io. Gottlob Hertelius, Philos. Et Med. Stud..  

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Definitions of vampire from WordNet

vampire (n.)
(folklore) a corpse that rises at night to drink the blood of the living;
Synonyms: lamia
From wordnet.princeton.edu