13世纪中叶, “古希伯来人的十二个部门之一”, 来自古法语 tribu, 或直接来自拉丁语 tribus, “原罗马国家的三个政治/民族部门之一” (Tites, Ramnes, 和 Luceres, 对应的可能是拉丁人, 萨宾人和伊特鲁里亚人), 后来是塞尔维乌斯-图利乌斯制定的30个政治部门之一(公元前241年增加到35个), 来源不明. 也许来自 tri- “三” + *bheue-, 动词的根 be. 其他人将这个词与PIE词根 *treb- “一个住所” 联系起来(见 tavern).
在《圣经》的意义上, 这是英语中的原始意义, 这个拉丁词翻译成希腊文 phyle “种族或部落的人, 由血缘和血统联系在一起的人的身体, 一个氏族” (见 phylo-). 延伸到现代族群或人种, 是从1590年代开始的, 具体是“一个野蛮人种的分化, 通常在某种程度上可以与他们的同胞区分开来, 在一个公认的首领或首领的带领下联合成一个共同体” [《世纪词典》], 但通俗地说, 是指任何一种个体的集合体.
Entries linking to tribe
Old English beon, beom, bion "be, exist, come to be, become, happen," from Proto-Germanic *biju- "I am, I will be." This "b-root" is from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow," and in addition to the words in English it yielded German present first and second person singular (bin, bist, from Old High German bim "I am," bist "thou art"), Latin perfective tenses of esse (fui "I was," etc.), Old Church Slavonic byti "be," Greek phu- "become," Old Irish bi'u "I am," Lithuanian būti "to be," Russian byt' "to be," etc.
The modern verb to be in its entirety represents the merger of two once-distinct verbs, the "b-root" represented by be and the am/was verb, which was itself a conglomerate. Roger Lass ("Old English") describes the verb as "a collection of semantically related paradigm fragments," while Weekley calls it "an accidental conglomeration from the different Old English dial[ect]s." It is the most irregular verb in Modern English and the most common. Collective in all Germanic languages, it has eight different forms in Modern English:
BE (infinitive, subjunctive, imperative); AM (present 1st person singular); ARE (present 2nd person singular and all plural); IS (present 3rd person singular); WAS (past 1st and 3rd persons singular); WERE (past 2nd person singular, all plural; subjunctive); BEING (progressive & present participle; gerund); BEEN (perfect participle).
The paradigm in Old English was: eom, beo (present 1st person singular); eart, bist (present 2nd person singular); is, bið (present 3rd person singular); sind, sindon, beoð (present plural in all persons); wæs (past 1st and 3rd person singular); wære (past 2nd person singular); wæron (past plural in all persons); wære (singular subjunctive preterit); wæren (plural subjunctive preterit).
The "b-root" had no past tense in Old English, but often served as future tense of am/was. In 13c. it took the place of the infinitive, participle and imperative forms of am/was. Later its plural forms (we beth, ye ben, they be) became standard in Middle English and it made inroads into the singular (I be, thou beest, he beth), but forms of are claimed this turf in the 1500s and replaced be in the plural. For the origin and evolution of the am/was branches of this tangle, see am and was.
That but this blow Might be the be all, and the end all. ["Macbeth" I.vii.5]