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temper (v.)

晚期古英语 temprian "缓和,使之达到适当或合适的状态,修饰一些过分的品质,在适当的范围内克制",来自拉丁语 temperare "遵守适当的尺度,适度,克制自己",也是转义,"正确地混合,以适当的比例混合;调节,统治,治理,管理"。常有人说这是来自拉丁文 tempus "时间、季节"(见 temporal ),有"适当的时间或季节"之意。但由于 tempus 的根义似乎是"伸展",所以"约束、修改"意义上的词可能来自于语义上从"伸展"到"测量"的转变(比较 temple (n.1))。意思是"使(钢)变得坚硬而有弹性"是14世纪末的意思,"调整乐器的音调"是14世纪的记载。相关链接: Tempered ; tempering

temper (n.)

14世纪末,"元素或品质的适当比例",来自 temper (v.)。"特有的心境、倾向、性情"的意义最早记载于1590年代;"平静的心境、安宁"的意义记载于17世纪;"愤怒的心境"的意义记载于1828年(为 bad temper )。意思是"钢的硬度和弹性的程度"是15世纪末的。

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Definitions of temper from WordNet
1
temper (v.)
bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling;
temper glass
Synonyms: anneal / normalize
temper (v.)
harden by reheating and cooling in oil;
temper steel
Synonyms: harden
temper (v.)
adjust the pitch (of pianos);
temper (v.)
make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else;
she tempered her criticism
Synonyms: season / mollify / moderate
temper (v.)
change by restraining or moderating;
Synonyms: chasten
2
temper (n.)
a sudden outburst of anger;
his temper sparked like damp firewood
Synonyms: pique / irritation
temper (n.)
a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling;
whether he praised or cursed me depended on his temper at the time
Synonyms: mood / humor / humour
temper (n.)
a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger;
his temper was well known to all his employees
Synonyms: biliousness / irritability / peevishness / pettishness / snappishness / surliness
temper (n.)
the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking;
Synonyms: toughness
From wordnet.princeton.edu