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temper (v.)

晚期古英语 temprian “缓和, 使之达到适当或合适的状态, 修饰一些过分的品质, 在适当的范围内克制”, 来自拉丁语 temperare “遵守适当的尺度, 适度, 克制自己”, 也是转义, “正确地混合, 以适当的比例混合; 调节, 统治, 治理, 管理”. 常有人说这是来自拉丁文 tempus “时间, 季节” (见 temporal), 有“适当的时间或季节” 之意. 但由于 tempus 的根义似乎是“伸展”, 所以“约束, 修改” 意义上的词可能来自于语义上从“伸展” 到“测量” 的转变(比较 temple (n. 1) ). 意思是“使(钢) 变得坚硬而有弹性” 是14世纪末的意思, “调整乐器的音调” 是14世纪的记载. 相关链接: Tempered; tempering.

temper (n.)

14世纪末, “元素或品质的适当比例”, 来自 temper (v.). “特有的心境, 倾向, 性情” 的意义最早记载于1590年代; “平静的心境, 安宁” 的意义记载于17世纪; “愤怒的心境” 的意义记载于1828年(为 bad temper). 意思是“钢的硬度和弹性的程度” 是15世纪末的.

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Definitions of temper
1
temper (v.)
bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling;
temper glass
Synonyms: anneal / normalize
temper (v.)
harden by reheating and cooling in oil;
temper steel
Synonyms: harden
temper (v.)
adjust the pitch (of pianos);
temper (v.)
make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else;
she tempered her criticism
Synonyms: season / mollify / moderate
temper (v.)
change by restraining or moderating;
Synonyms: chasten
2
temper (n.)
a sudden outburst of anger;
his temper sparked like damp firewood
Synonyms: pique / irritation
temper (n.)
a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling;
whether he praised or cursed me depended on his temper at the time
Synonyms: mood / humor / humour
temper (n.)
a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger;
his temper was well known to all his employees
Synonyms: biliousness / irritability / peevishness / pettishness / snappishness / surliness
temper (n.)
the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking;
Synonyms: toughness
From wordnet.princeton.edu