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take (v.)

晚期古英语 tacan “拿, 抓住”, 来自斯堪的纳维亚语源(如古北欧语 taka “拿, 抓住, 放下”, 过去时 tok, 过去分词 tekinn; 瑞典语 ta, 过去分词 tagit), 来自原日耳曼语 *takan- (来源也是中低德语 tacken, 中荷兰语 taken, 哥特语 tekan “触碰” ), 来自日耳曼语根 *tak- “拿”, 来源不确定, 也许原意是“触碰”.

作为“拿” 的主要动词, 它逐渐取代了中古英语 nimen, 来自于古英语 niman, 来自于通常的西德动词 *nemanan (德语 nehmen, 荷兰语 nemen 的来源; 见 nimble).

OED称 take 为“语言的基本词之一”; 在该词典的第2版印刷版中, 仅 take up 就有55种意思. 基本意义是“把持”, 演变为“接受, 接收” (如 take my advice) 13世纪; “吸收” (take a punch) 13世纪; “选择, 选择” (take the high road) 13世纪末; “使, 获得” (take a shower) 14世纪末; “成为影响” (take sick) 14世纪.

Take five 是1929年, 从抽一支烟所需的大致时间. Take it easy 是1880年的记载. take the plunge “果断行动” 是1876年的. take the rap “接受(不应有的) 惩罚” 是1930年的. 短语 take it or leave it 是1897年的记载. 以(某事) 对“开始做” 是从12世纪末开始的To take it out on (某人或某事) “把怒气发泄到引起怒气的东西以外的地方” 是到1840年.

take (n.)

1650年代, “即取之”, 出自 take (五). 单次演出等“钱财被摄取” 的意义, 出自1931年. 电影制作意义从1927年开始记载. 刑事意义上的“盗取的钱财” 出自1888年. 动词意义上的“欺骗, 诈骗” 出自1920年. On the take “受贿” 出自1930年.

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Definitions of take from WordNet
1
take (v.)
carry out;
take action
take steps
take vengeance
take (v.)
require (time or space);
It took three hours to get to work this morning
Synonyms: occupy / use up
take (v.)
take somebody somewhere;
can you take me to the main entrance?
Synonyms: lead / direct / conduct / guide
take (v.)
get into one's hands, take physically;
Can you take this bag, please
Synonyms: get hold of
take (v.)
take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect;
His voice took on a sad tone
The story took a new turn
Synonyms: assume / acquire / adopt / take on
take (v.)
interpret something in a certain way; convey a particular meaning or impression;
How should I take this message?
Synonyms: read
take (v.)
take something or somebody with oneself somewhere;
Synonyms: bring / convey
take (v.)
take into one's possession;
I'll take three salmon steaks
take (v.)
travel or go by means of a certain kind of transportation, or a certain route;
He takes the bus to work
She takes Route 1 to Newark
take (v.)
pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives;
Synonyms: choose / select / pick out
take (v.)
receive willingly something given or offered;
Synonyms: accept / have
take (v.)
assume, as of positions or roles;
She took the job as director of development
Synonyms: fill / occupy
take (v.)
take into consideration for exemplifying purposes;
Synonyms: consider / deal / look at
take (v.)
require as useful, just, or proper;
It takes nerve to do what she did
Synonyms: necessitate / ask / postulate / need / require / involve / call for / demand
take (v.)
experience or feel or submit to;
take (v.)
make a film or photograph of something;
take a scene
Synonyms: film / shoot
take (v.)
remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract;
take the gun from your pocket
Synonyms: remove / take away / withdraw
take (v.)
serve oneself to, or consume regularly;
I don't take sugar in my coffee
Synonyms: consume / ingest / take in / have
take (v.)
accept or undergo, often unwillingly;
We took a pay cut
Synonyms: submit
take (v.)
make use of or accept for some purpose;
take an opportunity
take a risk
Synonyms: accept
take (v.)
take by force;
Hitler took the Baltic Republics
The army took the fort on the hill
take (v.)
occupy or take on;
She took up her position behind the tree
She took her seat on the stage
We took our seats in the orchestra
Synonyms: assume / strike / take up
take (v.)
admit into a group or community;
Synonyms: accept / admit / take on
take (v.)
ascertain or determine by measuring, computing or take a reading from a dial;
take a pulse
A reading was taken of the earth's tremors
take (v.)
be a student of a certain subject;
Synonyms: learn / study / read
take (v.)
take as an undesirable consequence of some event or state of affairs;
The hard work took its toll on her
Synonyms: claim / exact
take (v.)
head into a specified direction;
The escaped convict took to the hills
Synonyms: make
take (v.)
point or cause to go (blows, weapons, or objects such as photographic equipment) towards;
Synonyms: aim / train / take aim / direct
take (v.)
be seized or affected in a specified way;
take sick
be taken drunk
take (v.)
have with oneself; have on one's person;
She always takes an umbrella
Synonyms: carry / pack
take (v.)
engage for service under a term of contract;
Shall we take a guide in Rome?
We took an apartment on a quiet street
Synonyms: lease / rent / hire / charter / engage
take (v.)
receive or obtain regularly;
We take the Times every day
Synonyms: subscribe / subscribe to
take (v.)
buy, select;
I'll take a pound of that sausage
take (v.)
to get into a position of having, e.g., safety, comfort;
take shelter from the storm
take (v.)
have sex with; archaic use;
He had taken this woman when she was most vulnerable
Synonyms: have
take (v.)
lay claim to; as of an idea;
She took credit for the whole idea
Synonyms: claim
take (v.)
be designed to hold or take;
This surface will not take the dye
Synonyms: accept
take (v.)
be capable of holding or containing;
This box won't take all the items
Synonyms: contain / hold
take (v.)
develop a habit;
He took to visiting bars
take (v.)
proceed along in a vehicle;
Synonyms: drive
take (v.)
obtain by winning;
He took first prize
Winner takes all
take (v.)
be stricken by an illness, fall victim to an illness;
She took a chill
Synonyms: contract / get
2
take (n.)
the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property;
Synonyms: return / issue / takings / proceeds / yield / payoff
take (n.)
the act of photographing a scene or part of a scene without interruption;
From wordnet.princeton.edu