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subject (n.)

14世纪初,"受他人控制或支配的人",具体指政府或统治者,来自古法语 sogit , suget , subget "臣民的人或物"(12世纪,现代法语 sujet ),来自拉丁语 subiectus "躺在下面,下面,靠近边界"的名词用法,形象地说是"受制于人,被制服", subicere , subiicere "放在下面,扔在下面,束缚在下面"的过去分词。使受制于人,服从于人,"来自 sub "under"(来自PIE根 *upo "under")+ iacere "to throw"(来自PIE根 *ye- "to throw,impel")的组合形式。在14世纪, sugges , sogetis , subgit , sugette ; 形式在16世纪的英语中重新拉丁化。

意思是"被视为行动接受者的人或物,可以采取行动的人或物",记载于1590年代。语法意义从1630年代就有记载,来自拉丁文 subjectum "语法主体",名词用法为拉丁文过去分词的中性词。同样在逻辑学和哲学中的一些限制性用法也是直接借用拉丁文 subjectum ,如"命题的基础或主题",是亚里士多德的借译 to hypokeimenon 。意为"一门艺术或科学的主题"是从1540年代开始考证的,可能是 subject matter (14世纪末)的简称,它来自中世纪的拉丁文 subjecta materia ,是希腊文 hypokeimene hylē (亚里士多德)的借译,字面意思是"在下面的东西"。

subject (v.)

14世纪晚期,"以武力使(个人或国家)受制于他人",也"使其顺从或依附",来自中世纪拉丁文 subiectare "置于下方",常出现于拉丁文 subicere "使其受制于人,从属"(见 subject (n.))。意思是"打开或暴露在(某种力量或事件)之下",从15世纪早期就有记载(隐含在 subjected )。相关内容: Subjecting .

subject (adj.)

14世纪初,来自古法语 sugetsubject (现代法语 sujet ),来自拉丁语 subiectus (见 subject (n.))。

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Definitions of subject from WordNet
1
subject (n.)
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion;
he didn't want to discuss that subject
Synonyms: topic / theme
subject (n.)
something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation;
a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject
Synonyms: content / depicted object
subject (n.)
a branch of knowledge;
teachers should be well trained in their subject
Synonyms: discipline / subject area / subject field / field / field of study / study / bailiwick
subject (n.)
some situation or event that is thought about;
he had been thinking about the subject for several years
Synonyms: topic / issue / matter
subject (n.)
(grammar) one of the two main constituents of a sentence; the grammatical constituent about which something is predicated;
subject (n.)
a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation;
the subjects for this investigation were selected randomly
Synonyms: case / guinea pig
subject (n.)
a person who owes allegiance to that nation;
a monarch has a duty to his subjects
Synonyms: national
subject (n.)
(logic) the first term of a proposition;
2
subject (v.)
cause to experience or suffer or make liable or vulnerable to;
He subjected me to his awful poetry
The sergeant subjected the new recruits to many drills
People in Chernobyl were subjected to radiation
subject (v.)
make accountable for;
He did not want to subject himself to the judgments of his superiors
subject (v.)
make subservient; force to submit or subdue;
Synonyms: subjugate
3
subject (adj.)
possibly accepting or permitting;
the time is fixed by the director and players and therefore subject to much variation
Synonyms: capable / open
subject (adj.)
being under the power or sovereignty of another or others;
subject peoples
Synonyms: dependent
subject (adj.)
likely to be affected by something;
the bond is subject to taxation
he is subject to fits of depression
From wordnet.princeton.edu