slave (n.)

13世纪晚期, “作为他人动产或财产的人”, 来自古法语 esclave (13世纪), 来自中世纪拉丁文 Sclavus “slave” (也是意大利文 schiavo, 法文 esclave, 西班牙文 esclavo), 原为“Slav” (见 Slav); 之所以在这个次要意义上使用, 是因为许多斯拉夫人被征服民族卖为奴隶.

The oldest written history of the Slavs can be shortly summarised--myriads of slave hunts and the enthralment of entire peoples. The Slav was the most prized of human goods. With increased strength outside his marshy land of origin, hardened to the utmost against all privation, industrious, content with little, good-humoured, and cheerful, he filled the slave markets of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It must be remembered that for every Slavonic slave who reached his destination, at least ten succumbed to inhuman treatment during transport and to the heat of the climate. Indeed Ibrāhīm (tenth century), himself in all probability a slave dealer, says: “And the Slavs cannot travel to Lombardy on account of the heat which is fatal to them.” Hence their high price.
The Arabian geographer of the ninth century tells us how the Magyars in the Pontus steppe dominated all the Slavs dwelling near them. The Magyars made raids upon the Slavs and took their prisoners along the coast to Kerkh where the Byzantines came to meet them and gave Greek brocades and such wares in exchange for the prisoners. [“The Cambridge Medieval History,” Vol. II, 1913]

意思是“一个人失去了对某些习惯或恶习的抵抗力” 是从1550年代开始的. 从1904年开始应用于设备, 特别是那些由他人控制的设备(比较航海中的 slave jib, 类似于机车, 闪光灯泡, 放大器). Slave-driver 从1807年开始被证实; “残酷或严格的任务主宰” 的扩展意义是由1854年. 美国历史上的 Slave state, 是从1812年开始的. Slave-trade 从1734年开始被证实.

It is absurd to bring back a runaway slave. If a slave can survive without a master, is it not awful to admit that the master cannot live without the slave? [Diogenes, fragment 6, transl. Guy Davenport]

古英语 Wealh “Briton” 也在约850年开始用于“农奴, 奴隶” 的意义上; 而梵语 dasa-, 可意为“奴隶”, 显然与 dasyu- “印度的前雅利安居民” 有关. 格罗塞的词典(1785) 在 Negroe “A black-a-moor; 形象地用于奴隶”, 不考虑种族. 古英语中较常见的奴隶词有 þeow (与 þeowian “服役” 有关) 和 þræl (见 thrall). 斯拉夫语中的“奴隶” (俄语 rab, 塞尔维亚-克罗地亚语 rob, 旧教会斯拉夫语 rabu) 来自于旧斯拉夫语 *orbu, 来自于PIE词根 *orbh- (也是 orphan (n.) 的来源), 其地义似乎是“改变效忠的东西” (就奴隶而言, 从自己到主人). 斯拉夫语也是 robot 的来源.

Origin and meaning of slave


加拿大西北部的印第安部落, 1789年, 来自 slave (n.), 译为克里语(阿尔冈昆语) awahkan “俘虏, 奴隶”.

slave (v.)

1550年代, “奴役”, 来自 slave (n.). 到1719年, “像奴隶一样工作” 的意思得到了印证. 相关链接: Slaved; slaving.

Definitions of slave
slave (n.)
a person who is owned by someone;
slave (n.)
someone who works as hard as a slave;
Synonyms: striver / hard worker
slave (n.)
someone entirely dominated by some influence or person;
his mother was his abject slave
a slave to cocaine
a slave to fashion
slave (v.)
work very hard, like a slave;
Synonyms: break one's back / buckle down / knuckle down