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shame (n.)

古英语 scamusceomu "内疚或耻辱的感觉;耻辱引起的混乱;耻辱、不名誉、侮辱、失去自尊或名誉;可耻的情况,带来耻辱的东西;谦虚;私密部位,"来自于古日耳曼语 *skamo (也是古撒克逊语 skama 、古北欧语 skömm 、瑞典语 skam 、古弗里斯兰语 scome 、荷兰语 schaamte 、古高德语 scama 、德语 Scham 的来源)。最好的猜测是来自PIE *skem- ,来自 *kem- "掩盖"(掩盖自己是一种常见的羞耻表达)。

直到现代英语有一个生产性的重复形式 shand 。古北欧语的一个词是 kinnroði ,字面意思是"脸颊红肿",因此,"羞愧的脸红"。希腊语将"耻辱、不名誉"( aiskhyne )的坏意义上的耻辱与"谦虚、害羞"( aidos )的好意义上的耻辱区分开来。到 put (someone or something) to shame ,是13世纪中期 Shame culture ,到1947年得到证实。

shame (v.)

古英语 scamian "感到羞愧,脸红,感到羞耻;引起羞耻",来自 shame (n.)的词根。比较古撒克逊语 scamian ,荷兰语 schamen ,古高德语 scamen ,丹麦语 skamme ,哥特语 skaman ,德语 schämen sich 。相关链接: Shamed ; shaming .

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Definitions of shame from WordNet
1
shame (v.)
bring shame or dishonor upon;
Synonyms: dishonor / disgrace / dishonour / attaint
shame (v.)
compel through a sense of shame;
She shamed him into making amends
shame (v.)
cause to be ashamed;
shame (v.)
surpass or beat by a wide margin;
2
shame (n.)
a painful emotion resulting from an awareness of inadequacy or guilt;
shame (n.)
a state of dishonor;
one mistake brought shame to all his family
Synonyms: disgrace / ignominy
shame (n.)
an unfortunate development;
Synonyms: pity
From wordnet.princeton.edu