science (n.)

14世纪中叶, “已知的东西, 通过学习获得的知识(某事); 信息;” 也是“知识的保证, 确信, 确定”, 来自古法语 science “知识, 学习, 应用; 人类知识的语料库” (12世纪), 来自拉丁语 scientia “知识, 一种知性. expertness”, 来自 sciens (genitive scientis) “聪明的, 熟练的”, scire “to know” 的现在分词, 可能最初是“把一件事和另一件事分开, 区分开来”, 与 scindere “切开, 分割” 有关(来自PIE根 *skei- “切开, 分割;” 也是希腊语 skhizein “分割, 撕开, 劈开” 的来源, 哥特语 skaidan, 古英语 sceadan “分割, 分开” ).

从14世纪末在英语中作“书本学习”, 也是“知识或学问的某一分支”; 也是“熟练, 聪明; 狡猾”. 从15世纪起在英语中作“经验知识”; 又作“一种技能, 手艺; 一门手艺”. 从14世纪末作为“人类的集体知识” (特别是通过系统的观察, 实验和推理获得的知识). 现代(限制性) 意义上的“关于某一特定主题或猜测的有规律或有条理的观察或命题的体系” 从1725年开始得到证明; 在17世纪-18世纪, 这一概念通常被称为 philosophy. “非艺术研究” 的意义是从1670年代开始出现的.

Science, since people must do it, is a socially embedded activity. It progresses by hunch, vision, and intuition. Much of its change through time does not record a closer approach to absolute truth, but the alteration of cultural contexts that influence it so strongly. Facts are not pure and unsullied bits of information; culture also influences what we see and how we see it. Theories, moreover, are not inexorable inductions from facts. The most creative theories are often imaginative visions imposed upon facts; the source of imagination is also strongly cultural. [Stephen Jay Gould, introduction to “The Mismeasure of Man,” 1981]

In science you must not talk before you know. In art you must not talk before you do. In literature you must not talk before you think. [John Ruskin, “The Eagle's Nest,” 1872]

通常理解为理论真理(希腊文 epistemē) 和实现实际结果的方法(tekhnē) 之间的区别, 但 science, 有时也用于实际应用, 艺术用于技能的应用. 要 blind (someone) with science “通过使用大词或复杂的解释来混淆” 是从1937年开始考证的, 最初是作为澳大利亚和新西兰的短语而被注意的.

Origin and meaning of science
Definitions of science

science (n.)
a particular branch of scientific knowledge;
the science of genetics
Synonyms: scientific discipline
science (n.)
ability to produce solutions in some problem domain;
the sweet science of pugilism
Synonyms: skill