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run (v.)

现代动词是由两个相关的古英语单词合并而成, 在这两个单词中, 第一个字母有时会调换位置. 第一个是不及物 rinnan, irnan “跑, 流, 一起跑” (过去时 ran, 过去分词 runnen), 与中荷兰语 runnen, 古撒克逊语, 古高德语, 哥特语 rinnan, 德语 rinnen “流, 跑” 同源.

第二种是古英语转折性弱动词 æ rnan, earnan “骑马, 跑到, 到达, 通过跑步获得” (可能是 *rennan), 来自于原日耳曼语 *rannjanan, 因果关系是根 *ren- “跑”. 这与古撒克逊语 renian, 古高德语 rennen, 德语 rennen, 哥特语 rannjan, 是同源词.

两者都来自PIE *ri-ne-a-, 是词根 *rei- “奔跑, 流动” 的鼻化形式.

溪流等的意思, 出自13世纪; 机械的意思, 出自1560年代. 意为“负责”, 最早见于1861年, 原为美国英语. 意思是“在选举中谋求职位”, 来自1826年, 美式英语. 短语 run for it “take flight” 是从1640年代开始考证的. 许多形象化的用法来自赛马或狩猎(如 to run (something) into the ground, 1836年, 美国英语).

run across “满足” 是从1855年美式英语中考证出来的. To run short “穷尽一个人的供应” 来自1752年; 同样意义的To run out of 来自1713年. To run around with “consort with” 出自1887年. To Run away “flee in the face of danger” 出自14世纪末To run late 出自1954年.

run (n.)

“a spell of running”, 15世纪中叶(更早的 ren, 14世纪末), 来自 run (v.). 古英语名词 ryne, 意为“流动的, 路线的, 水道的”. 现代意义上的“小溪” 最早记载于1580年代, 多为北英语方言和美式英语.

意为“连续的延伸” (的东西) 是1670年代的. 意为“对银行等的一系列或急促的要求” 最早记载于1690年代. 意思是“经过或超过的特权” 是从1755年开始的. 棒球意义是1856年的. “乘坐铁路列车单程” 的意思是从1857年开始的. 军机意义是从1916年开始的. “总印数” 的意思是从1909年开始的. “针织服装的撕裂” 的意思是从1922年开始的. 短语 a run for one's money, 是从1872年开始的, 是一种形象化的意义, 原指赛马, 意味着竞争(1841年).

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Definitions of run from WordNet
1
run (v.)
move fast by using one's feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time;
Don't run--you'll be out of breath
The children ran to the store
run (v.)
flee; take to one's heels; cut and run;
If you see this man, run!
Synonyms: scat / scarper / turn tail / lam / run away / hightail it / bunk / head for the hills / take to the woods / escape / fly the coop / break away
run (v.)
stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point;
Service runs all the way to Cranbury
Synonyms: go / pass / lead / extend
run (v.)
direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.;
She is running a relief operation in the Sudan
Synonyms: operate
run (v.)
have a particular form;
the story or argument runs as follows
Synonyms: go
run (v.)
move along, of liquids;
Synonyms: flow / feed / course
run (v.)
perform as expected when applied;
Does this old car still run well?
Synonyms: function / work / operate / go
run (v.)
change or be different within limits;
Interest rates run from 5 to 10 percent
Synonyms: range
run (v.)
run, stand, or compete for an office or a position;
Who's running for treasurer this year?
Synonyms: campaign
run (v.)
cause to emit recorded audio or video;
They ran the tapes over and over again
Synonyms: play
run (v.)
move about freely and without restraint, or act as if running around in an uncontrolled way;
let the dogs run free
who are these people running around in the building?
She runs around telling everyone of her troubles
run (v.)
have a tendency or disposition to do or be something; be inclined;
These dresses run small
Synonyms: tend / be given / lean / incline
run (v.)
be operating, running or functioning;
The car is still running--turn it off!
run (v.)
change from one state to another;
run rogue
run amok
run riot
run (v.)
cause to perform;
run a subject
run a process
run (v.)
be affected by; be subjected to;
run a temperature
run a risk
run (v.)
continue to exist;
Synonyms: prevail / persist / die hard / endure
run (v.)
occur persistently;
Musical talent runs in the family
run (v.)
carry out a process or program, as on a computer or a machine;
run a new program on the Mac
Synonyms: execute
run (v.)
include as the content; broadcast or publicize;
We ran the ad three times
Synonyms: carry
run (v.)
carry out;
run (v.)
pass over, across, or through;
He ran his eyes over her body
She ran her fingers along the carved figurine
Synonyms: guide / draw / pass
run (v.)
cause something to pass or lead somewhere;
Synonyms: lead
run (v.)
make without a miss;
run (v.)
deal in illegally, such as arms or liquor;
Synonyms: black market
run (v.)
cause an animal to move fast;
run the dogs
run (v.)
be diffused;
Synonyms: bleed
run (v.)
sail before the wind;
run (v.)
cover by running; run a certain distance;
She ran 10 miles that day
run (v.)
extend or continue for a certain period of time;
The film runs 5 hours
Synonyms: run for
run (v.)
set animals loose to graze;
run (v.)
keep company;
the heifers run with the bulls to produce offspring
Synonyms: consort
run (v.)
run with the ball; in such sports as football;
run (v.)
travel rapidly, by any (unspecified) means;
She always runs to Italy, because she has a lover there
run (v.)
travel a route regularly;
Synonyms: ply
run (v.)
pursue for food or sport (as of wild animals);
The dogs are running deer
Synonyms: hunt / hunt down / track down
run (v.)
compete in a race;
he is running the Marathon this year
Synonyms: race
run (v.)
progress by being changed;
run through your presentation before the meeting
Synonyms: move / go
run (v.)
reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating;
Synonyms: melt / melt down
run (v.)
come unraveled or undone as if by snagging;
Her nylons were running
Synonyms: ladder
run (v.)
become undone;
Synonyms: unravel
2
run (n.)
a score in baseball made by a runner touching all four bases safely;
the Yankees scored 3 runs in the bottom of the 9th
Synonyms: tally
run (n.)
the act of testing something;
Synonyms: test / trial
run (n.)
a race run on foot;
she broke the record for the half-mile run
Synonyms: footrace / foot race
run (n.)
an unbroken series of events;
Nicklaus had a run of birdies
Synonyms: streak
run (n.)
(American football) a play in which a player attempts to carry the ball through or past the opposing team;
the coach put great emphasis on running
the defensive line braced to stop the run
Synonyms: running / running play / running game
run (n.)
a regular trip;
the ship made its run in record time
run (n.)
the act of running; traveling on foot at a fast pace;
his daily run keeps him fit
he broke into a run
Synonyms: running
run (n.)
the continuous period of time during which something (a machine or a factory) operates or continues in operation;
the assembly line was on a 12-hour run
run (n.)
unrestricted freedom to use;
he has the run of the house
run (n.)
the production achieved during a continuous period of operation (of a machine or factory etc.);
a daily run of 100,000 gallons of paint
run (n.)
a small stream;
Synonyms: rivulet / rill / runnel / streamlet
run (n.)
a race between candidates for elective office;
he is raising money for a Senate run
Synonyms: political campaign / campaign
run (n.)
a row of unravelled stitches;
she got a run in her stocking
Synonyms: ladder / ravel
run (n.)
the pouring forth of a fluid;
Synonyms: discharge / outpouring
run (n.)
an unbroken chronological sequence;
the play had a long run on Broadway
the team enjoyed a brief run of victories
run (n.)
a short trip;
take a run into town
From wordnet.princeton.edu