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psyche (n.)

1640年代, “灵动的精神, 人的精神或思想”, 来自拉丁文 psyche, 来自希腊文 psykhē “灵魂, 思想, 精神; 生命, 一个人的生命, 占据和指导肉体的无形的灵动原则或实体; 理解, 思想(作为思想的所在地), 理智的能力”, 也有“鬼魂, 死人的精神;” 可能类似于 psykhein “吹气, 呼吸”, 也有“冷却, 使之干燥”.

这些有时被追溯到一个PIE根 *bhes- “吹气, 呼吸” (来源也是梵文 bhas-), “可能是模仿” [Watkins]. Beekes认为这很诱人, 但并不令人信服, 并根据很少的证据怀疑PIE动词的存在.

希腊人将其人格化为 Psykhē, 爱神的心上人, 常表现为一个美丽的少女; 蝴蝶是她的象征. 在古希腊语中, 也是“逝去的灵魂, 精神, 鬼魂”, 被看作是一种有翅膀的生物, 常被象征性地表现为蝴蝶或飞蛾.

该词在柏拉图哲学和受犹太教影响的圣保罗神学著作中, 有广泛的意义发展(比较 spirit (n.) ). 意为“人的灵魂”, 出自1650年代. 在英语中, “心灵” 的心理学意义在1910年就有了证明.

In the Jewish-Alexandrine Pauline, and Neo-Platonist psychology, the psyche is in general treated as the animating principle in close relation to the body, whereas the pneuma (as representing the divine breath breathed into man), the nous, and the Logos (q. v.) stand for higher entities. They are the more universal, the more divine, the ethically purer. By this more explicit separation of the intellectual and ethical activities from the physiological the conception of the mental or psychical (in the modern sense) was at length reached. [“Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology,” J. M. Baldwin, ed. , London, 1902]

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Definitions of psyche from WordNet
1
psyche (n.)
that which is responsible for one's thoughts, feelings, and conscious brain functions; the seat of the faculty of reason;
Synonyms: mind / head / brain / nous
psyche (n.)
the immaterial part of a person; the actuating cause of an individual life;
Synonyms: soul
2
Psyche (n.)
(Greek mythology) a beautiful princess loved by Cupid who visited her at night and told her she must not try to see him; became the personification of the soul;
From wordnet.princeton.edu