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privilege (n.)

12世纪中叶"授予、委托"(古英语记载较早,但为拉丁语词),来自古法语 privilege "权利、优先权、特权"(12世纪),直接来自拉丁语 privilegium "适用于一个人的法律,有利于或不利于个人的法律法案;"在后奥古斯丁时期,"有利于个人的法令"(通常是免除一个人的法律实施),"特权、特权",来自 privus "个人"(见 private (副词))。+ lex (属词 legis )"法律"(见 legal (副词))。

来自13世纪为"与某种社会或宗教地位有关的权力或特权"。意为"授予的优势,授予某人或某团体的特殊权利或恩惠,某人或某团体所享有的超越其他个人的共同优势的权利、豁免权、利益或优势"是从14世纪中期的英语。从14世纪末开始作为"法律豁免或免除"。

原指教皇授予的豁免或许可,或授予当权者或在职者的特殊豁免或优势(如言论自由)等;在现代,随着法律面前人人平等的普遍性,用于指所有公民共有的基本权利(人身保护令、投票权等)。

Privilege is also more loosely used for any special advantage: as, the privilege of intimacy with people of noble character. Prerogative is a right of precedence, an exclusive privilege, an official right, a right indefeasible on account of one's character or position : as, the Stuart kings were continually asserting the royal prerogative , but parliament resisted any infringement upon its privileges . [Century Dictionary]

中世纪英语也有 pravilege "恶法或特权"(14世纪末),来自中世纪拉丁文 pravilegium ,用 pravus "错误的、坏的"代替 privilegium

privilege (v.)

14世纪末, privilegen ,"赋予(某人)特殊的权利、恩典、权力等;赋予特权",来自 privilege (n.)和古法语 privilegier (13世纪),来自中世纪拉丁语 privilegare ,来自拉丁语 privilegium "适用于一个人的法律"。相关链接: Privileged ; privileging

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Definitions of privilege from WordNet
1
privilege (n.)
a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all;
privilege (n.)
a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right);
Synonyms: prerogative / perquisite / exclusive right
privilege (n.)
(law) the right to refuse to divulge information obtained in a confidential relationship;
2
privilege (v.)
bestow a privilege upon;
Synonyms: favor / favour
From wordnet.princeton.edu