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philosophy (n.)

14世纪, philosophie, “知识, 学问, 学术, 学术著作, 知识体系”, 来源于古法语 filosofie “哲学, 知识” (12世纪, 现代法语 philosophie), 直接来源于拉丁语 philosophia,, 来源于希腊语 philosophia “热爱知识, 追求智慧; 系统的调查”, 来源于 philo- “热爱” (见 philo-) + sophia “知识, 智慧”, 来源于 sophis “聪明, 有学问;” 是一个来源不明的词[Beekes]. 在中古英语(filozofie, phelosophie, 等) 中有许多拼写变体.

从14世纪中叶作为“处理理性推测或沉思的学科”; 从14世纪晚期作为“自然科学”, 也有“炼金术, 神秘知识”; 在中世纪, 这个词被理解为包含所有的推测科学. 意为“一个人形成的生活行为系统”, 从1771年开始得到证明. 现代意义上的“最高真理的主体, 最基本事务的科学” 来自1794年.

Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, “De Officiis” ]

[Philosophical problems] are, of course, not empirical problems; but they are solved through an insight into the workings of our language, and that in such a way that these workings are recognized — despite an urge to misunderstand them. The problems are solved, not through the contribution of new knowledge, rather through the arrangement of things long familiar. Philosophy is a struggle against the bewitchment (Verhexung) of our understanding by the resources of our language. [Ludwig Wittgenstein, “Philosophical Investigations,” 1953]

Origin and meaning of philosophy

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Definitions of philosophy from WordNet

philosophy (n.)
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school;
Synonyms: doctrine / philosophical system / school of thought / ism
philosophy (n.)
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics;
philosophy (n.)
any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation;
self-indulgence was his only philosophy
my father's philosophy of child-rearing was to let mother do it
From wordnet.princeton.edu