15世纪初古典改正中英语 parfit “完美无瑕, 理想” (14世纪), 也有“完整, 充分, 完成, 毫无缺憾” (14世纪末), 来自古法语 parfit “完成, 完成, 准备好了” (11世纪), 来自拉丁语 perfectus “完成, 优秀, 完成, 精致”, perficere “完成, 完成, 完成” 的过去分词, 来自 per “完全” (见 per) + facere “使, 做” 的组合形式(来自PIE词根 *dhe- “设置, 放” ).
在英语中常作为强化(perfect stranger, 等) 使用, 源于“完成” 的概念. 语法意义上, 参照动词时态描述动作完成, 来自16世纪. 作为名词, 14世纪末(“完美” ), 来自形容词.
The difference between the Preterit and the Perfect is in English observed more strictly than in the other languages possessing corresponding tenses. The Preterit refers to some time in the past without telling anything about the connexion with the present moment, while the Perfect is a retrospective present, which connects a past occurrence with the present time, either as continued up to the present moment (inclusive time) or as having results or consequences bearing on the present moment. [Otto Jespersen, “Essentials of English Grammar,” 1933]
“to bring to full development, finish or complete so as to leave nothing wanting”, 14世纪末, parfiten, 来自 perfect (adj.). 相关链接: Perfected; perfecting.