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over-

造词元素的意思有多种:"高于;最高的;跨越;更高的权力或权威;太多;高于正常;外部;在时间上超越,太长",来自古英语 ofer (来自PIE词根 *uper "超过")。 Over 及其日耳曼语关系被广泛用作前缀,有时可用于负面力量。这在现代英语中很少见,但比较哥特语 ufarmunnon "忘记", ufar-swaran "假誓";古英语 ofercræft "欺诈"。

In some of its uses, moreover, over is a movable element, which can be prefixed at will to almost any verb or adjective of suitable sense, as freely as an adjective can be placed before a substantive or an adverb before an adjective. [OED]

在现在不存在的旧词中,有古英语 oferlufu (中英语 oferlufe ),字面意思是"过度的爱",因此是"过度的或不正经的爱"。Over-在中古英语中也可以带有"太少,低于正常"的意思,如 over-lyght "体重太轻"(15世纪)、 overlitel "太小"(14世纪中叶)、 overshort ,等等。

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