nostalgia (n.)

1726年, “病态地渴望回到自己的家乡或祖国, 严重的思乡病被认为是一种疾病”, 现代拉丁语, 1688年由学者约翰内斯-霍费尔(1669-1752) 在巴塞尔大学的一篇论文中创造, 作为德语 heimweh “思乡病” 的译音(见 home + woe).

来自希腊语 algos “痛苦, 悲伤, 苦恼” (见 -algia) + nostos “回家”, 来自 neomai “到达某个地方, 逃离, 返回, 回家”, 来自PIE *nes- “安全回家” (与古北欧语 nest “旅途的食物”, 梵语 nasate “接近, 加入”, 德语 genesen “恢复”, 哥特语 ganisan “治愈”, 古英语 genesen “恢复” 同源). 法文 nostalgie, 到1754年就出现在法国军队的医学手册中.

最初是指瑞士人, 据说是他们所特有的, 而且往往是致命的, 不管是由其本身的作用还是与伤口或疾病相结合.

[Dr. Scheuzer] had said that the air enclosed in the bodies of his countrymen, being in Æquilibrium with a rare and light air that surrounds them, was overloaded in lower countries with an air more dense and heavier, which compressing and obstructing the capillary vessels, makes the circulation slow and difficult, and occasions many sad symptoms. [Account of the publication of “Areographia Helvetiæ” in New Memoirs of Literature, London, March 1726] 

到了19世纪30年代, 这个词被用于任何强烈的思乡情绪:水手, 囚犯, 非洲奴隶的思乡情绪. “风笛有时在海外服役的苏格兰军团中也产生了同样的效果” [《Penny杂志》, 1840年11月14日]. 在“实用医学百科全书” [伦敦, 1833年, 由三位医学博士编辑]中, 它被列为“地方病”, 该书将其定义为“在离开祖国的人身上有时会出现的一连串令人沮丧的症状, 当他们渴望回到家乡和朋友那里, 回到他们年轻时的场景时, .. ..”.

这主要是一种军医诊断, 在美国内战中被北方认为是一个严重的医学问题.

In the first two years of the war, there were reported 2588 cases of nostalgia, and 13 deaths from this cause. These numbers scarcely express the real extent to which nostalgia influenced the sickness and mortality of the army. To the depressing influence of home-sickness must be attributed the fatal result in many cases which might otherwise have terminated favorably. [“Sanitary Memoirs of the War,” U. S. Sanitary Commission, N. Y. : 1867]

转移的意义(主要的现代意义) “对过去的怀念” 在1920年就有了记载, 也许是来自法国文学中的这种用法 nostalgie. 对远方的思念也必然涉及到时间上的分离.

Origin and meaning of nostalgia
Definitions of nostalgia

nostalgia (n.)
longing for something past;