“言语的形象, 通过这种方式, 将一个对象的特征赋予另一个对象, 与之不同但又类似或类比; 通过描述性词语或短语的转移进行比较,” 15世纪末, methaphoris (复数), 来自法语 metaphore (旧法语 metafore, 13世纪), 直接来自拉丁语 metaphora, 来自希腊语 metaphora “转移”, 特别是将一个词的意义转移到另一个词上, 字面意思是“带过”, 来自 metapherein “转移, 带过. 改变, 改变; 以一种奇怪的意义来使用一个词,” 来自 meta “超过, 跨越” (见 meta-) + pherein “携带, 承受” (来自PIE词根 *bher- (1) “携带”, 也是“生孩子” ).
But a metaphor is no argument, though it be sometimes the gunpowder to drive one home and imbed it in the memory. [James Russell Lowell, “Democracy,” 1884]
It is a great thing, indeed, to make a proper use of the poetical forms, as also of compounds and strange words. But the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor. It is the one thing that cannot be learnt from others; and it is also a sign of genius, since a good metaphor implies an intuitive perception of the similarity in dissimilars. [Aristotle, “Poetics,” 1459a 3-8]