medicine (n.)

13世纪, “医疗, 治愈, 治疗,” 也(14世纪初) “用于治疗疾病的物质, 药水或膏药,” 也可形象地用于精神疗法, 来自古法语 medecine (现代法语 médicine) “医学, 治疗的艺术, 治愈, 治疗, 药水”, 直接来自拉丁语 medicina “治疗的艺术, 医学; 一种补救措施,” 也可形象地使用.

这或许原本是 ars medicina “医学艺术”, 来自fem. of medicinus (adj.) “医生的”, 来自 medicus “医生” (来自PIE根 *med- “采取适当的措施” ); 不过OED说这一路径证据不足, 建议直接从 medicus 衍生. “治疗, 减轻或预防人类疾病的实践, 理论或研究” 的意义来自14世纪中叶.

形象的说法是 take (one's) medicine 1865年就有“屈服于不愉快的事情” 的记录; 1865年就有“屈服于不愉快的事情” 的记录. dose of (one's) own medicine 是到1894年. Medicine show “巡回演出, 意在吸引人群, 以便将专利药卖给他们” 是美国英语, 1938年. Medicine ball “用于锻炼的塞满皮球” 是1889年的.

It is called a “medicine ball” and it got that title from Prof. [Robert J. ] Roberts, now of Springfield, whose fame is widespread, and whose bright and peculiar dictionary of terms for his prescription department in physical culture is taught in every first-class conducted Y. M. C. A. gymnasium in America. Prof. Roberts calls it a “medicine ball” because playful exercise with it invigorates the body, promotes digestion, and restores and preserves one's health. [Scientific American Supplement, March 16, 1889]

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Definitions of medicine
medicine (n.)
the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques;
Synonyms: medical specialty
medicine (n.)
(medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease;
Synonyms: medication / medicament / medicinal drug
medicine (n.)
the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries;
he studied medicine at Harvard
Synonyms: practice of medicine
medicine (n.)
punishment for one's actions;
take your medicine
Synonyms: music
medicine (v.)
treat medicinally, treat with medicine;
Synonyms: medicate