medicine (n.)

13世纪 ,"医疗,治愈,治疗,"也(14世纪初)"用于治疗疾病的物质,药水或膏药,"也可形象地用于精神疗法,来自古法语 medecine (现代法语 médicine )"医学,治疗的艺术,治愈,治疗,药水",直接来自拉丁语 medicina "治疗的艺术,医学;一种补救措施,"也可形象地使用。

这或许原本是 ars medicina "医学艺术",来自fem.of medicinus (adj.)"医生的",来自 medicus "医生"(来自PIE根 *med- "采取适当的措施");不过OED说这一路径证据不足,建议直接从 medicus 衍生。"治疗、减轻或预防人类疾病的实践、理论或研究"的意义来自14世纪中叶。

形象的说法是 take (one's) medicine 1865年就有"屈服于不愉快的事情"的记录;1865年就有"屈服于不愉快的事情"的记录。 dose of (one's) own medicine 是到1894年。 Medicine show "巡回演出,意在吸引人群,以便将专利药卖给他们"是美国英语,1938年。 Medicine ball "用于锻炼的塞满皮球"是1889年的。

It is called a "medicine ball" and it got that title from Prof. [Robert J.] Roberts, now of Springfield, whose fame is widespread, and whose bright and peculiar dictionary of terms for his prescription department in physical culture is taught in every first-class conducted Y.M.C.A. gymnasium in America. Prof. Roberts calls it a "medicine ball" because playful exercise with it invigorates the body, promotes digestion, and restores and preserves one's health. [Scientific American Supplement, March 16, 1889]

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Definitions of medicine from WordNet
medicine (n.)
the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques;
Synonyms: medical specialty
medicine (n.)
(medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease;
Synonyms: medication / medicament / medicinal drug
medicine (n.)
the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries;
he studied medicine at Harvard
Synonyms: practice of medicine
medicine (n.)
punishment for one's actions;
take your medicine
Synonyms: music
medicine (v.)
treat medicinally, treat with medicine;
Synonyms: medicate