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liberal (adj.)

14世纪中叶,"慷慨",也有"高贵地出生,高尚地,自由地";从14世纪晚期起为"无私的,宽宏大量的,令人钦佩的";从15世纪早期的不良意义上说,"奢侈的,无节制的",来自古法语 liberal "适合自由人;高贵的,慷慨的。心甘情愿,热心肠"(12世纪),直接来源于拉丁文 liberalis "高贵的,亲切的,豪爽的,慷慨的",字面意思是"自由的,与自由人有关的或适合自由人的",来源于 liber "自由的,不受限制的,不受阻碍的;无拘无束的,不受约束的,放荡的。"

据推测,这是来自于PIE *leudh-ero- ,它最初的意思可能是"属于人民",尽管精确的语义发展是模糊的;但比较 frank (adj.)。这是基础 *leudh- (2)"人民"的后缀形式(也是古教会斯拉夫语 ljudu ,立陶宛语 liaudis ,古英语 leod ,德语 Leute "民族,人民";古高德语 liut "人,人民"的来源)。

Who hath indeed, most like a liberal villain,
Confess'd the vile encounters they have had
A thousand times in secret.
["Much Ado," IV.1.93]

Liberal 在16世纪-17世纪被用作责备词,意思是"在言论或行动上不受约束"。启蒙运动使它恢复了积极意义上的"不受偏见、宽容、不偏执或狭隘",1776-88年出现。在19世纪常为神学而非政治,反对 orthodox ,用于统一派、普世派等。用于教育方面,见 liberal arts

纯粹是指政治观点,"倾向于自由和民主",它可以追溯到1801年左右,来自法语 libéral 。在英语中,这个标签起初被反对者(通常是以法语的形式,并带有外国无法无天的建议)应用于更有利于个人政治自由的政党。但也(特别是在美国政治中)倾向于意味着"有利于政府行动以实现社会变革",这似乎有时更多地从宗教意义上汲取"不受偏见的影响,有利于传统意见和既定体制"(从而对新的改革思想和计划持开放态度),这可以追溯到1823年。

This is the attitude of mind which has come to be known as liberal. It implies vigorous convictions, tolerance for the opinions of others, and a persistent desire for sound progress. It is a method of approach which has played a notable and constructive part in our history, and which merits a thorough trial today in the attack on our absorbingly interesting American task. [Guy Emerson, "The New Frontier," 1920]

liberal (n.)

1820年,"大不列颠进步和改革主义政党的成员,一个反威格的人",来自 liberal (adj.)。一般意思是"具有自由主义政治原则或倾向的人"(不指党派),到1832年;在指政治意识形态不是保守主义或法西斯主义,而是短于社会主义的人,从约1920年开始。从20世纪初开始,也用于指不那么教条的基督教会的牧师。

Conservative, n. A statesman who is enamored of existing evils, as distinguished from the Liberal, who wishes to replace them with others. [Ambrose Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary," 1911]

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Definitions of liberal from WordNet
1
liberal (adj.)
having political or social views favoring reform and progress;
liberal (adj.)
tolerant of change; not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or tradition;
liberal (adj.)
given or giving freely;
a liberal backer of the arts
Synonyms: big / bighearted / bounteous / bountiful / freehanded / handsome / giving / openhanded
liberal (adj.)
not literal;
Synonyms: free / loose
2
liberal (n.)
a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties;
Synonyms: liberalist / progressive
liberal (n.)
a person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets;
From wordnet.princeton.edu