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lead (v.1)

“引导”, 古英语 lædan (转义) “造成与自己同行; 行进在头, 作为向导走在前面, 陪伴和指路; 进行; 萌芽, 带出; 传递(自己的生命)”, liðan “旅行” 的因果关系, 来自于古日耳曼语 *laidjanan (也是古撒克逊语 lithan “走” 的来源, 古北欧语 liða “走”, 古高德语 ga-lidan “走”, 哥特语 ga-leiþan “走” ), 来自于PIE *leit- (2) “走出去”.

13世纪, 道路的. 意为“居于首位”, 来自14世纪末 不动词意义, “充当领袖的角色”, 来自1570年代. 在打牌中的意义, “开始一轮或一招”, 来自1670年代. 意思是“在音乐表演或祈祷中担任指挥部分”, 来自1849年. 相关链接: Led; leading.

lead with one's chin “在比赛中让自己处于弱势” (1946年) 是拳击运动中的一个数字. 要 lead on “诱之以进” 出自1590年代. 为了形象地 lead (someone) by the nose “劝导” 是从1580年代开始的, 从吃力不讨好的动物(早 lead by the sleeve, 15世纪初). 到 lead (someone) a dance “compel through a course of irksome actions” is from 1520s.

lead (n.1)

重金属, 古英语 lead “铅, 铅制容器”, 来自西日耳曼语 *lauda- (也是古弗里斯兰语 lad, 中荷兰语 loot, 荷兰语 lood “铅”, 德语 Lot “重量, 暴跌” 的来源), 这个词的来源不明. 这个名字和使用金属的技巧似乎是从凯尔特人那里借来的(比较古爱尔兰语 luaide).

至少从14世纪早期的美国英语俚语开始, 就有了沉重的形象. lead balloon “惨败” 在1957年得到证明, 也许是1940年代(作为一种只有努力才能跟上的重物, 来自1904年). Lead-footed “slow” 来自1896年; 相反意义的“fast” 出现在1940年代的卡车司机的行话中, 来自脚重踩油门踏板的概念.

意为“铅笔中的石墨”, 出自1816年(见 pencil (n.) ). Black lead 是“石墨” 的古称, 因此 lead pencil (1680年代) 和俗语的形象化用语, 以有 lead in one's pencil “具有(特别是男性性) 活力”, 1902年证明. White lead 1560年代) 是“锡” 的旧称.

1610年代作为暗淡的蓝灰色的名称. 1590年代起作为“子弹” 的形象化. 氧化铅多用于琉璃, 制镜和颜料. 在印刷中, “薄薄的金属铅条(通常是铅, 但有时也是黄铜), 在构图中用来分隔线条”, 来自1808年, 更早的 space-line. Lead-poisoning 是1848年的, 更早的 lead-distemper (1774年).

lead (n.2)

14世纪, “领导的行动”, 出自 lead (v. 1). 意为“前面或领先的地方”, 是1560年代的. 约翰逊污蔑它是“一个低级的, 可鄙的词”. 在打牌中的意义, “先打的行动或特权”, 来自1742年; 在戏剧中的意义, “主要部分”, 来自1831年; 在新闻学中的意义, “新闻报道的最初摘要”, 来自1912年(通常拼写为 lede, 以区别于以前在排版中起重要作用的 lead (n. 1). 拳击意义是从1906年开始的. 在爵士乐队中, 从1934年开始, 指主要部分; 更早的时候, 它在音乐中用于指先起飞的部分的赋格(1880年), 被其他部分“跟随”.

意为“通过例子给出的方向” (如 follow (someone's) lead) 是到1863年, “解决的线索” 是到1851年, 都是从“要遵循的事情” 的概念. 作为形容词, “引导”, 到1846年. Lead-time “产生某事所需的时间” 是1945年, 美国英语.

lead (v.2)

15世纪初, “用铅做”, 来自 lead (n. 1). 意思是“用铅覆盖”, 来自15世纪中叶, 1841年印刷, 也是 lead out.

lead (adj.)

“由铅制成或类似于铅”, 14世纪末, 来自 lead (n. 1).

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Definitions of lead from WordNet
1
lead (n.)
an advantage held by a competitor in a race;
he took the lead at the last turn
lead (n.)
a soft heavy toxic malleable metallic element; bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes readily to dull grey;
the children were playing with lead soldiers
Synonyms: Pb / atomic number "
lead (n.)
evidence pointing to a possible solution;
the police are following a promising lead
the trail led straight to the perpetrator
Synonyms: track / trail
lead (n.)
a position of being the initiator of something and an example that others will follow (especially in the phrase `take the lead');
we were just waiting for someone to take the lead
they didn't follow our lead
he takes the lead in any group
lead (n.)
the angle between the direction a gun is aimed and the position of a moving target (correcting for the flight time of the missile);
lead (n.)
the introductory section of a story;
it was an amusing lead-in to a very serious matter
Synonyms: lead-in / lede
lead (n.)
(sports) the score by which a team or individual is winning;
lead (n.)
an actor who plays a principal role;
Synonyms: star / principal
lead (n.)
(baseball) the position taken by a base runner preparing to advance to the next base;
he took a long lead off first
lead (n.)
an indication of potential opportunity;
a good lead for a job
Synonyms: tip / steer / confidential information / wind / hint
lead (n.)
a news story of major importance;
Synonyms: lead story
lead (n.)
the timing of ignition relative to the position of the piston in an internal-combustion engine;
Synonyms: spark advance
lead (n.)
restraint consisting of a rope (or light chain) used to restrain an animal;
Synonyms: leash / tether
lead (n.)
thin strip of metal used to separate lines of type in printing;
Synonyms: leading
lead (n.)
mixture of graphite with clay in different degrees of hardness; the marking substance in a pencil;
Synonyms: pencil lead
lead (n.)
a jumper that consists of a short piece of wire;
it was a tangle of jumper cables and clip leads
Synonyms: jumper cable / jumper lead / booster cable
lead (n.)
the playing of a card to start a trick in bridge;
the lead was in the dummy
2
lead (v.)
take somebody somewhere;
We lead him to our chief
Synonyms: take / direct / conduct / guide
lead (v.)
produce as a result or residue;
Synonyms: leave / result
lead (v.)
tend to or result in;
This remark lead to further arguments among the guests
lead (v.)
travel in front of; go in advance of others;
Synonyms: head
lead (v.)
cause to undertake a certain action;
Her greed led her to forge the checks
lead (v.)
stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point;
Synonyms: run / go / pass / extend
lead (v.)
be in charge of;
Synonyms: head
lead (v.)
be ahead of others; be the first;
Synonyms: top
lead (v.)
be conducive to;
The use of computers in the classroom lead to better writing
Synonyms: contribute / conduce
lead (v.)
lead, as in the performance of a composition; "conduct an orchestra; Barenboim conducted the Chicago symphony for years";
Synonyms: conduct / direct
lead (v.)
lead, extend, or afford access;
Synonyms: go
lead (v.)
move ahead (of others) in time or space;
Synonyms: precede
lead (v.)
cause something to pass or lead somewhere;
Synonyms: run
lead (v.)
preside over;
Synonyms: moderate / chair
From wordnet.princeton.edu