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in (adv., prep.)

中古英语 in (prep.) “in, into, upon, on, at, among; about, during;” 和古英语 inne (adv.) “internal, inside” 合并而成, 来自于古日耳曼语 *in (也是古弗里斯兰语, 荷兰语, 德语, 哥特语 in, 古诺尔斯语 i 的来源), 来自于PIE词根 *en “in”. 较简单的形式在中古英语中就有了这两种意义.

inon 之间的意义区分来自于后来的中原英语, 而 inat 在使用上的细微差别仍然区分着英国和美国英语 (in school / at school). 有时在中古英语中简称为 i.

名词意义上的“影响, 访问(权力或权威)”, 如 have an in with, 最早记录于1929年的美国英语. to be in for it “一定会遇到不愉快的事情” 是1690年代的. To be in with “与之友好相处” 来自1670年代. Ins and outs “错综复杂的行动或过程” 来自1660年代. In-and-out (n.) “交媾” 被证明来自1610年代.

in (adj.)

“that is within, internal”, 1590年代, 出自 in (副词). “掌权” 的意义(the in party) 最早记载于17世纪; “专一” 的意义(the in-crowd, an in-joke) 来自1907年(in-group); “时尚, 时髦” 的意义(the in thing) 来自1960年.

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Definitions of in from WordNet
1
in (adj.)
directed or bound inward;
took the in bus
the in basket
in (adj.)
holding office;
the in party
in (adj.)
currently fashionable;
large shoulder pads are in
2
in (n.)
a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot;
Synonyms: inch
in (n.)
a state in midwestern United States;
Synonyms: Indiana / Hoosier State / Ind.
3
in (adv.)
to or toward the inside of;
come in
smash in the door
Synonyms: inwards / inward
4
In (n.)
a rare soft silvery metallic element; occurs in small quantities in sphalerite;
Synonyms: indium / atomic number "
From wordnet.princeton.edu