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idiom (n.)

1580年代,"一个民族或地方特有的语言形式";意为"一种语言特有的短语或表达方式",出自1620年代。来自法语 idiome (16世纪),直接来自晚期拉丁语 idioma "语言的特殊性",来自希腊语 idioma "特殊性,特殊的短语"(福勒写道,"特殊性的表现"是"最接近希腊语的翻译"),来自 idioumai "适合于自己",来自 idios "个人的、私人的",恰当地说是"特殊于自己"。"

这是来自于PIE *swed-yo- ,词根 *s(w)e- 的后缀形式,第三人称代词和反身词(指回句子的主语),也用于表示说话人的社会群体的形式,"(我们我们-)自己"(来源也是梵文 svah ,阿维斯坦语 hva- ,古波斯语 huva "自己的", khva-data "主人",字面意思是"由自己创造的"。" 希腊语 hos "他,她,它;"拉丁语 suescere "习惯,习惯", sodalis "同伴;"古教会斯拉夫语 svoji "他的,她的,它的", svojaku "亲属,亲戚;"哥特语 swes "自己的;"古北欧语 sik "自己;"德语 Sein ;古爱尔兰语 fein "自己,自己")。)

[G]rammar & idiom are independent categories; being applicable to the same material, they sometimes agree & sometimes disagree about particular specimens of it; the most can be said is that what is idiomatic is far more often grammatical than ungrammatical, but that is worth saying, because grammar & idiom are sometimes treated as incompatibles .... [Fowler]

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Definitions of idiom from WordNet

idiom (n.)
a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language;
Synonyms: parlance
idiom (n.)
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people;
Synonyms: dialect / accent
idiom (n.)
the style of a particular artist or school or movement;
an imaginative orchestral idiom
Synonyms: artistic style
idiom (n.)
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up;
Synonyms: idiomatic expression / phrasal idiom / set phrase / phrase
From wordnet.princeton.edu