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hand (n.)

古英语 hondhand "人的手;"也是"侧面、部分、方向"(在定义位置时,向右或向左);也是"权力、控制、占有"(在手的握住或持有的概念上),来自于原日耳曼语 *handuz (来源也是古撒克逊语、古弗里斯语、荷兰语、德语 hand ,古北欧语 hönd ,哥特语 handus ),其来源不明。

古英语原复数 handa ,在中英语中被 handen ,后来被 hands 所取代。印欧语系的"手"字往往来自于意为"抓住、拿取、收集"的词根,或者是由原本仅指手的一部分的词延伸而来(如爱尔兰语 lam ,威尔士语 llaw ,与拉丁语 palma 同源,原意为"手掌")。有一个古词根( *man- (2)),以拉丁文 manus 为代表,是古英语 mund "手"的来源,但更多的通常意思是"保护、监护;保护者、守护者"。

意为"体力劳动者,用手做事的人",出自1580年代,故有"雇工"(1630年代)和"船上的水手"(1660年代)之意。"代理、参与做某事"的意义来自1590年代。时钟和手表的意义是1570年代的。意思是"掌声"来自1838年。4英寸(原为3英寸)的直线测量法来自1560年代,现在只用于给出马的高度。意思是"一个人手里拿着的牌"是1620年代的;"牌局上的一轮"是1620年代的。意为"笔迹"的意思是14世纪末;也有"一个人的笔法风格"的意思(15世纪初)。13世纪时,该词指的是手在宣誓时的各种用法;14世纪末,具体为"一个人的婚姻誓言"。

First hand , second hand 等。(15世纪中叶)是来自于东西从手到手的传递概念。 At hand 是来自13世纪的"近在咫尺",14世纪的"触手可及"。 Out of hand 15世纪90年代)是与 in hand "在控制之下"( 13世纪 )。副词组 hand-over-fist (1803年)是航海用语,寓意通过双手一前一后的交替传递来牵引或攀爬。

词组 on the one hand ... on the other hand hand 是16世纪30年代的记载,是指身体一侧或另一侧的位置(如 the lefthand side )的形象化用法,可追溯到古英语 Hands up! ,作为警察、强盗等的命令,是1863年的记载,来自举手投降或不抵抗的形象。 Hand-to-hand "in close contact,"的战斗,是来自15世纪 。 Hand-to-mouth "说的是一个人花钱如流水,赚的钱只够一天到晚的生活"[巴特利]出自16世纪 。 Hand-in-hand 16世纪考证为"双手紧握";"同时"的形象意义从1570年代开始记录。

hand (v.)

15世纪 ,"掌管,抓住",来自 hand (n.)。更早的动词有 hend (古英语 genehdan ), handle 。意为"把(东西)传给某人",来自16世纪40年代。 hand it to (someone) "承认某人的能力或优越性"是1906年的俚语, it 也许是指奖杯、奖状等。相关链接: Handed ; handing .

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Definitions of hand from WordNet
1
hand (n.)
the (prehensile) extremity of the superior limb;
he had the hands of a surgeon
Synonyms: manus / mitt / paw
hand (n.)
a hired laborer on a farm or ranch;
the hired hand fixed the railing
a ranch hand
Synonyms: hired hand / hired man
hand (n.)
something written by hand;
his hand was illegible
Synonyms: handwriting / script
hand (n.)
ability;
he wanted to try his hand at singing
hand (n.)
a position given by its location to the side of an object;
objections were voiced on every hand
hand (n.)
the cards held in a card game by a given player at any given time;
he kept trying to see my hand
I didn't hold a good hand all evening
Synonyms: deal
hand (n.)
one of two sides of an issue;
on the one hand..., but on the other hand...
hand (n.)
a rotating pointer on the face of a timepiece;
the big hand counts the minutes
hand (n.)
a unit of length equal to 4 inches; used in measuring horses;
the horse stood 20 hands
hand (n.)
a member of the crew of a ship;
all hands on deck
hand (n.)
a card player in a game of bridge;
we need a 4th hand for bridge
Synonyms: bridge player
hand (n.)
a round of applause to signify approval;
give the little lady a great big hand
hand (n.)
terminal part of the forelimb in certain vertebrates (e.g. apes or kangaroos); "the kangaroo's forearms seem undeveloped but the powerful five-fingered hands are skilled at feinting and clouting"- Springfield (Mass.) Union;
hand (n.)
physical assistance;
give me a hand with the chores
Synonyms: helping hand
2
hand (v.)
place into the hands or custody of;
hand me the spoon, please
Synonyms: pass / reach / pass on / turn over / give
hand (v.)
guide or conduct or usher somewhere;
hand the elderly lady into the taxi
From wordnet.princeton.edu