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god (n.)

也是 God; 古英语 god “至高无上的存在, 神; 基督教的神; 神的形象; 神一样的人”, 来自于原日耳曼语 *guthan (也是古撒克逊语, 古弗里斯兰语, 荷兰语 god, 古高德语 got, 德语 Gott, 古北欧语 guð, 哥特语 guþ), 其来源不确定; 也许来自于PIE *ghut- “被召唤的” (也是古教会斯拉夫语 zovo “召唤”, 梵语 huta- “召唤”, 是因陀罗的表音), 来自于根 *gheu(e) - “召唤, 调用”. 这个概念可能是“神的实体被召唤来祭祀”.

但也有人追溯到PIE *ghu-to- “倾倒”, 来自词根 *gheu- “倾倒, 倾倒酒” (希腊文 khein “倾倒” 的来源, 也在短语 khute gaia “倾倒土” 中, 指的是坟丘, 见 found (五2) ). “鉴于希腊语的事实, 日耳曼语的形式可能首先指的是蕴含在坟丘中的灵魂” [Watkins]. 另见 Zeus. 无论哪种情况, 都与 good 不相关.

Popular etymology has long derived God from good; but a comparison of the forms. .. shows this to be an error. Moreover, the notion of goodness is not conspicuous in the heathen conception of deity, and in good itself the ethical sense is comparatively late. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

在日耳曼语中原是一个中性名词, 基督教传入后, 性别转为阳性. 古英语 god 可能在意义上更接近于拉丁语 numen. 翻译 deus, 更好的词可能是原日耳曼语 *ansuz, 但这只用于日耳曼宗教中的最高神灵, 而不是外国神, 也从未用于基督教的神. 它在英语中主要存留在个人名开始的 Os-.

I want my lawyer, my tailor, my servants, even my wife to believe in God, because it means that I shall be cheated and robbed and cuckolded less often. .. . If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. [Voltaire]

God bless you 后有人打喷嚏是归功于圣格雷戈里大帝, 但异教的罗马人(Absit omen) 和希腊人也有类似的习俗. God's gift to _____ 是到1931年. God of the gaps 意味着“上帝只被认为是对任何事情的解释, 而不是以其他方式由科学解释;” 确切的短语是从1949年开始的, 但这个词和想法自1894年以来一直存在. God-forbidskids (“儿童” )的押韵俚语. God squad “福音派组织” 是1969年美国学生的俚语. God's acre “burial ground” 模仿或部分翻译了德语 Gottesacker, 其中第二个元素的意思是“田野”; 这个短语在英语中的历史可以追溯到1610年代, 但晚到朗费罗时就被指出是德语主义.

How poore, how narrow, how impious a measure of God, is this, that he must doe, as thou wouldest doe, if thou wert God. [John Donne, sermon preached in St. Paul's Jan. 30, 1624/5]

Origin and meaning of god

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Definitions of god from WordNet
1
god (n.)
any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force;
Synonyms: deity / divinity / immortal
god (n.)
a man of such superior qualities that he seems like a deity to other people;
he was a god among men
god (n.)
a material effigy that is worshipped;
money was his god
Synonyms: idol / graven image
2
God (n.)
the supernatural being conceived as the perfect and omnipotent and omniscient originator and ruler of the universe; the object of worship in monotheistic religions;
Synonyms: Supreme Being
From wordnet.princeton.edu