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gay (adj.)

14世纪晚期,"充满欢乐,快乐;轻快,无忧无虑;"也"放肆,淫荡,好色"(12世纪晚期作为姓氏, Philippus de Gay ),来自旧法语 gai "快乐,幸福;愉快,令人满意的迷人;向前,pert;浅色"(12世纪;比较旧西班牙语 gayo ,葡萄牙语 gaio ,意大利语 gajo ,可能是法语借词)。最终起源有争议;也许来自法兰克人 *gahi (与旧高德 wahi "pretty"有关),虽然不是所有词源学家都接受这一点。

意思是"庄严和美丽;华丽和艳丽地穿着",来自14世纪早期。 14世纪中期,事物的"奢华、艳丽、丰富、华丽";14世纪晚期,颜色等的"闪亮、闪光、闪耀、明亮、鲜艳";人的"打扮、华丽",14世纪晚期。

在约克郡和苏格兰的英语中,以前它的意思是"适度的,相当大的"(1796年;比较 pretty (adj.)中的意义发展)。

到了19世纪90年代, gay 这个词总体上带有淫乱的色彩--一个 gay house 就是一个妓院。这个词中的不道德暗示至少可以追溯到1630年代,如果不是乔叟的话。

But in oure bed he was so fressh and gay
Whan that he wolde han my bele chose.

意思是"同性恋"的俚语(adj.)开始出现在20世纪40年代末的心理学著作中,显然是从同性恋俚语中提取出来的,并不总是容易与旧的意义区分开来。

After discharge A.Z. lived for some time at home. He was not happy at the farm and went to a Western city where he associated with a homosexual crowd, being "gay," and wearing female clothes and makeup. He always wished others would make advances to him. [Rorschach Research Exchange and Journal of Projective Techniques, 1947, p.240]

与(男性)同性恋的关联很可能得到了推动 从这个词 gay cat ,使用早在1893年在美国英语为"年轻的流浪汉," 谁是新的道路上,也是一个谁有时做工作。

"A Gay Cat," said he, "is a loafing laborer, who works maybe a week, gets his wages and vagabonds about hunting for another 'pick and shovel' job. Do you want to know where they got their monica (nickname) 'Gay Cat'? See, Kid, cats sneak about and scratch immediately after chumming with you and then get gay (fresh). That's why we call them 'Gay Cats'." [Leon Ray Livingston ("America's Most Celebrated Tramp"), "Life and Adventures of A-no. 1," 1910]

引用一个叫法兰西的流浪汉的话,他可能不知道这个词的由来。同性恋猫受到"真正的"流浪汉和流浪汉的严厉而残酷的虐待,他们认为同性恋猫是"一种低等的生物秩序,他们向流浪汉乞讨,或者以其他方式捕食流浪汉--就像豺狼追随兽中之王一样"[约翰-J-麦库克教授,《流浪汉》,载于1893年《公共对待贫民》],但有些记载报告说,某些年长的流浪汉会支配一只同性恋猫,并把它当作一种奴隶来雇用。在"社会学和社会研究"(1932-33)中,有一段关于"同性恋猫"现象的论述指出:"同性恋行为在这个群体中更常见,而不是罕见。" gey cat "同性恋男孩"在Noel Erskine 1933年出版的"黑社会与监狱俚语"词典中得到了印证( gey 是苏格兰语的变体, gay )。

"美国俚语词典"报告说, gay (adj.)至少从1920年起,同性恋者之间就在这个意义上使用。Rawson["Wicked Words"]指出,在1889年伦敦臭名昭著的克利夫兰街丑闻中,一名男妓用 gay ,指代男同性恋者(但也指代女妓)。艾托["20世纪词汇"]呼吁大家注意1868年美国女扮男装者威尔-S-海斯的歌曲《干货店的年轻女店员》中对这个词的暧昧使用,但这个词显然最早在20世纪50年代才被更广泛的社会大众感受到。

"Gay" (or "gai") is now widely used in French, Dutch, Danish, Japanese, Swedish, and Catalan with the same sense as the English. It is coming into use in Germany and among the English-speaking upper classes of many cosmopolitan areas in other countries. [John Boswell, "Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality," 1980]

作为一个青少年俚语,意为"坏的、下等的、不受欢迎的",不提性行为,从2000年开始。

Origin and meaning of gay

gay (n.)

"一个(通常是男性)同性恋者",到1971年,来自 gay (adj.)。在中世纪英语中,它的意思是"优秀的人,高贵的女士,英勇的骑士",也是"一些快乐或明亮的东西;一种装饰品或徽章"(15世纪)。

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Definitions of gay from WordNet
1
gay (adj.)
brightly colored and showy;
a dress a bit too gay for her years
birds with gay plumage
Synonyms: brave / braw
gay (adj.)
homosexual or arousing homosexual desires;
Synonyms: queer / homophile
gay (adj.)
bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer;
a gay sunny room
Synonyms: cheery / sunny
gay (adj.)
full of or showing high-spirited merriment; "a poet could not but be gay, in such a jocund company"- Wordsworth;
when hearts were young and gay
Synonyms: jocund / jolly / jovial / merry / mirthful
gay (adj.)
given to social pleasures often including dissipation;
led a gay Bohemian life
a gay old rogue with an eye for the ladies
gay (adj.)
offering fun and gaiety;
gay and exciting night life
Synonyms: festal / festive / merry
2
gay (n.)
someone who is sexually attracted to persons of the same sex;
Synonyms: homosexual / homophile / homo
From wordnet.princeton.edu