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furlough (n.)

1620年代, vorloffe, “请假”, 特别是在军事上的使用, “由指挥官给予军官或士兵一定时间的休假或许可”, 来自荷兰语 verlof, 字面意思是“允许”, 来自中荷兰语 ver- “完全, 为” + laf, lof “允许”, 来自原日耳曼语 *laubo-, 来自PIE根 *leubh- “关心, 渴望, 爱”. 在英语中, 它的要素是 for- + leave. -gh 的拼写从1770年代开始占主导地位, 代表着“f” 曾在词尾发音, 但后来在英语中消失了.

The spelling furloe occurs in the 18th century, but furlough appears to be the earliest spelling (as in Blount's Gloss. , ed. 1674). As the spelling furlough does not follow that of the orig. language, it was prob. intended to be phonetic (from a military point of view), the gh perhaps as f and the accent on the second syllable. .. . [Century Dictionary]

到1946年用于指临时裁员(原指美国军方的文职雇员); 到1975年适用于有条件的临时释放囚犯, 目的是为了去工作(work-release).

furlough (v.)

1783年, “准假” (给士兵), 来自 furlough (n.). 雇员中, 到1940年, “裁员或暂时停职”. 相关链接: Furloughed; furloughing.

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Definitions of furlough from WordNet
1
furlough (v.)
dismiss, usually for economic reasons;
Synonyms: lay off
furlough (v.)
grant a leave to;
The prisoner was furloughed for the weekend to visit her children
2
furlough (n.)
a temporary leave of absence from military duty;
From wordnet.princeton.edu