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furlough (n.)

1620年代, vorloffe ,"请假",特别是在军事上的使用,"由指挥官给予军官或士兵一定时间的休假或许可",来自荷兰语 verlof ,字面意思是"允许",来自中荷兰语 ver- "完全、为"+ laflof "允许",来自原日耳曼语 *laubo- ,来自PIE根 *leubh- "关心、渴望、爱"。在英语中,它的要素是 for- + leave-gh 的拼写从1770年代开始占主导地位,代表着"f"曾在词尾发音,但后来在英语中消失了。

The spelling furloe occurs in the 18th century, but furlough appears to be the earliest spelling (as in Blount's Gloss., ed. 1674). As the spelling furlough does not follow that of the orig. language, it was prob. intended to be phonetic (from a military point of view), the gh perhaps as f and the accent on the second syllable .... [Century Dictionary]

到1946年用于指临时裁员(原指美国军方的文职雇员);到1975年适用于有条件的临时释放囚犯,目的是为了去工作( work-release )。

furlough (v.)

1783年,"准假"(给士兵),来自 furlough (n. )。雇员中,到1940年,"裁员或暂时停职"。相关链接: Furloughed ; furloughing

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Definitions of furlough from WordNet
1
furlough (v.)
dismiss, usually for economic reasons;
Synonyms: lay off
furlough (v.)
grant a leave to;
The prisoner was furloughed for the weekend to visit her children
2
furlough (n.)
a temporary leave of absence from military duty;
From wordnet.princeton.edu