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fool (n.1)

13世纪初, “傻子, 笨蛋或无知的人”, 来自古法语 fol “疯子, 疯子; 白痴; 流氓; 小丑”, 也是“铁匠的风箱”, 也是一个形容词, 意思是“疯了, 疯了” (12世纪, 现代法语 fou), 来自中世纪拉丁语 follus (adj.) “愚蠢的”, 来自拉丁语 follis “风箱, 皮袋”, 来自PIE根 *bhel- (2) “吹, 膨胀”.

意义演化可能是来自于古拉丁语 follis “风袋, 空头人” 的用法. 又比较梵文 vatula- “疯疯癫癫”, 字面意思是“风大, 被风吹得膨胀”. 但有的资料表明, 从拉丁文 folles “蓬头垢面” (小丑的) 演化而来, 从复数的 follis, 是次要的意义. 一个是使“白痴” 的意义原形, 另一个是“小丑” 的意义.

The word has in mod. Eng. a much stronger sense than it had at an earlier period; it has now an implication of insulting contempt which does not in the same degree belong to any of its synonyms, or to the derivative foolish. [OED]

在中古英语中也用于“罪人, 流氓, 不虔诚的人” (13世纪末). 英语中“小丑, 宫廷小丑” 的意思已被证实为14世纪, 虽然不一定能分辨出指的是假冒精神虚弱的职业艺人还是一个逗乐的疯子, 而 fool sage, 其说辞具有讽刺性的智慧的概念也是14世纪的英语. 这个法语单词可能也是通过在维京人的斯堪的纳维亚语言(古北欧语 fol, 古丹麦语 fool, fol) 中的借用而进入英语的.

There is no foole to the olde foole [“Proverbs of John Heywood,” 1546]

make a fool of (某人) “造成显得可笑” 是1620年代的(make fool “欺骗, 使(某人) 显得愚蠢” 是15世纪初的). Feast of Fools 14世纪初, 来自中世纪拉丁文 festum stultorum) 是中世纪时期一些教堂在元旦庆祝的滑稽节. Fool's gold “铁黄铁矿” 出自1829年. Fool's paradise “基于无知或错误判断的幸福的虚幻状态” 出自15世纪中叶(foles paradyce). Fool-trap is from 1690s. Foolosopher, a useful insult, is in a 1549 translation of Erasmus. Fool's ballocks is described in OED as “an old name” for the green-winged orchampid. Fool-killer “iminary personage invested with authority to put to death anybody notoriously guilty of great folly” is from 1851, American English.

Fool killer, a great American myth imagined by editors, who feign that his or its services are greatly needed, and frequently alluded to as being “around” or “in town” when some special act of folly calls for castigation. Whether the fool-killer be an individual or an instrument cannot always be gathered from the dark phraseology in which he or it is alluded to; but the weight of authority would sanction the impersonal interpretation. [Walsh, “Handy-Book of Literary Curiosities,” 1892]

fool (v.)

14世纪中叶, “犯傻, 装傻”, 来自 fool (n. 1). 转义为“使人愚弄”, 记载于1590年代. “乞讨, 欺骗” 的意义来自16世纪40年代. 同时作为动词16世纪-17世纪是 foolify. 相关链接: Fooled; fooling. Fool around 是1875年的意思是“闲着打发时间”, 70年代的意思是“进行性冒险”.

fool (adj.)

13世纪, “罪恶的, 邪恶的; 淫荡的” (一 fool woman (14世纪) 是“妓女” ), 出自 fool (n. 1). 意为“愚蠢, 愚蠢”, 是13世纪中叶 在现代使用中被认为是美国的口语.

fool (n.2)

1590年代的一种蛋黄酱菜, 来源不明. 这种食物也被称为 trifle, 这可能是名称的来源(通过动词和名词意义的 fool). OED彻底否定了从古法语 fole “a press” 的衍生.

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Definitions of fool from WordNet
1
fool (v.)
make a fool or dupe of;
Synonyms: gull / befool
fool (v.)
spend frivolously and unwisely;
Synonyms: fritter / frivol away / dissipate / shoot / fritter away / fool away
fool (v.)
fool or hoax;
You can't fool me!
Synonyms: gull / dupe / slang / befool / cod / put on / take in / put one over / put one across
fool (v.)
indulge in horseplay;
The bored children were fooling about
Synonyms: horse around / arse around / fool around
2
fool (n.)
a person who lacks good judgment;
Synonyms: sap / saphead / muggins / tomfool
fool (n.)
a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of;
Synonyms: chump / gull / mark / patsy / fall guy / sucker / soft touch / mug
fool (n.)
a professional clown employed to entertain a king or nobleman in the Middle Ages;
Synonyms: jester / motley fool
From wordnet.princeton.edu