fire (n.)

古英语 fyr “火, 一团火”, 来自于原日耳曼语 *fūr- (也是古撒克逊语 fiur, 古弗里斯兰语 fiur, 古北欧语 fürr, 中荷兰语和荷兰语 vuur, 古高德语 fiur, 德语 Feuer “火” 的来源), 来自于PIE *perjos, 来自于词根 *paewr- “火”. 目前的拼法早在1200年就有证据, 但直到17世纪才完全取代中古英语 fier (保存在 fiery).

PIE显然有两个火的根: *paewr-*egni- (拉丁语 ignis 的来源). 前者是“无生命的”, 指火是一种物质, 后者是“有生命的”, 指火是一种有生命的力量(比较 water (n. 1) ).

Brend child fuir fordredeþ [“The Proverbs of Hendyng,” c. 1250]

英语 fire, 从14世纪中叶开始适用于“热烈, 燃烧” 的激情或感情. 意思是“放电, 动枪等” 是从1580年代开始的. To be on fire 是从16世纪开始的(in fire 是从15世纪开始的, 正如 on a flame “on fire” 一样). To play with fire 在形象的意义上“冒着灾难的危险, 不小心或无知地插手危险的事情” 是到了1861年, 从常见的警告儿童. 词组 where's the fire? , 说给一个人明显的急, 到了1917年, 美国英语.

Fire-bell 是来自1620年代. fire-alarm 作为一种自动的, 机械的装置是从1808年开始作为一种理论上的创造; 实用的版本在19世纪30年代初开始出现. Fire-escape (n.) 是从1788年开始的(原来所谓的是一种伪装成小沙发的绳梯). fire-extinguisher 是出自1826年. A fire-bucket (1580年代) 提水去火. Fire-house 是1899年的. fire-hall 来自1867年. fire-station 来自1828年. Fire company “men for managing a fire-engine” 来自1744年, 美国英语. Fire brigade “消防员在某地组织成一个团体” 来自1838年. Fire department 通常是地方政府的一个分支, 来自1805年. Fire-chief 是来自1877年. fire-ranger 来自1909年.

符号 fire and the sword 是由17世纪(翻译拉丁文 flamma ferroque absumi); 更早的 yron and fyre (1560年代), with suerd & flawme (15世纪中叶), mid fure & mid here (“用火和武装力量” ), 13世纪. Fire-breathing 是1590年代的. 到 set the river on fire 在1830年, “完成一些令人惊讶或显著的事情” (通常是否定的, 并说一个人被认为是愚蠢或无能的), 往往与一条河流的名称, 根据地方而有所不同, 但原来是 set the Thames on fire (1796). 假设性的壮举到1720年被提到作为不可能的困难的东西的类型; 它作为一种理论上的可能性在当前的一些化学模型下流传约1792-95年, 这可能有助于表达的兴起.

[A]mong other fanciful modes of demonstrating the practicability of conducting the gas wherever it might be required, he anchored a small boat in the stream about 50 yards from the shore, to which he conveyed a pipe, having the end turned up so as to rise above the water, and forcing the gas through the pipe, lighted it just above the surface, observing to his friends “that he had now set the river on fire.” [“On the Origins and Progress of Gas-lighting,” in “Repertory of Patent Inventions,” vol. III, London, 1827]

fire (v.)

13世纪, furen, “唤醒, 激怒, 激发” (比喻用法); “放火” 的字面意义从14世纪晚期开始得到证明, 出自 fire (n.). 古英语动词 fyrian “以火供应” 显然没有留存到中英语. 相关: Fired; firing.

意思是“暴露在热或火的影响下” (砖头, 陶器等) 来自1660年代. 意思是“发射火炮或火器” (最初是用火), 来自1520年代; “投掷(作为导弹)” 的延伸意义来自1580年代. Fire away 在“前进” 的形象意义上是来自1775年.

“解雇, 开除” 的意义是由1877年(与 out; 1879年单独) 在美国英语中记录的. 这可能是对 discharge (v.) 两种含义的发挥. “辞退一个职位” 和“ fire 一把枪”, 受早期一般意义上的“把(某人) 扔出” 某个地方(1871年) 的影响. To fire out “drive out by or as if by fire” (1520年代) 见于莎士比亚和查普曼. Fired up “生气” 是1824年的(到 fire up “变得生气” 是1798年的).

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Definitions of fire from WordNet
fire (v.)
start firing a weapon;
Synonyms: open fire
fire (v.)
cause to go off;
fire a bullet
fire a gun
Synonyms: discharge
fire (v.)
bake in a kiln so as to harden;
fire pottery
fire (v.)
terminate the employment of; discharge from an office or position;
The boss fired his secretary today
Synonyms: displace / give notice / can / dismiss / give the axe / send away / sack / force out / give the sack / terminate
fire (v.)
go off or discharge;
The gun fired
Synonyms: discharge / go off
fire (v.)
drive out or away by or as if by fire;
The soldiers were fired
Surrender fires the cold skepticism
fire (v.)
call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses);
Synonyms: arouse / elicit / enkindle / kindle / evoke / raise / provoke
fire (v.)
destroy by fire;
Synonyms: burn / burn down
fire (v.)
provide with fuel;
Oil fires the furnace
Synonyms: fuel
fire (v.)
generate an electrical impulse;
the neurons fired fast
fire (v.)
become ignited;
The furnace wouldn't fire
Synonyms: flame up
fire (v.)
start or maintain a fire in;
fire the furnace
Synonyms: light / ignite
fire (n.)
the event of something burning (often destructive);
they lost everything in the fire
fire (n.)
the act of firing weapons or artillery at an enemy;
hold your fire until you can see the whites of their eyes
they retreated in the face of withering enemy fire
Synonyms: firing
fire (n.)
the process of combustion of inflammable materials producing heat and light and (often) smoke;
fire was one of our ancestors' first discoveries
Synonyms: flame / flaming
fire (n.)
a fireplace in which a relatively small fire is burning;
they sat by the fire and talked
fire (n.)
once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles);
fire (n.)
feelings of great warmth and intensity;
Synonyms: ardor / ardour / fervor / fervour / fervency / fervidness
fire (n.)
fuel that is burning and is used as a means for cooking;
barbecue over an open fire
put the kettle on the fire
fire (n.)
a severe trial;
he went through fire and damnation
fire (n.)
intense adverse criticism;
Clinton directed his fire at the Republican Party
Synonyms: attack / flak / flack / blast