Etymology
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fair (adj.)

古英语 fæger “赏心悦目(指人和身体特征, 也指物体, 地方等); 美丽, 英俊, 有吸引力”, 指天气, “明亮, 晴朗, 愉快; 不下雨”, 也是古英语晚期的“道德良好”, 来自古日耳曼语 *fagraz (来源也是古撒克逊语 fagar, 古诺尔斯语 fagr, 瑞典语 fager, 古高德语 fagar “美丽”, 哥特语 fagrs “合适” ), 也许来自PIE *pek- (1) “使之漂亮” (来源也是立陶宛语 puošiu “我装饰” ).

在提到天气时的意思保留了最古老的意义“合适的, 合意的” (与 foul (adj.) 相对). 在这个词的主要现代意义上, “肤色或头发和眼睛的颜色的光, 不暗淡或黧黑” (人) 是从13世纪开始的, faire, 与 browne, 反映了美的品味. 从13世纪初起, 作“合乎礼节; 合乎正义”, 故作“公平, 公正, 正义, 无偏见” (14世纪中叶).

风, “不过分; 有利于船只航行”, 出自14世纪末. 1690年代的笔迹. 14世纪起为“有望带来好运, 吉祥”. 也是14世纪的“高于平均水平, 可观, 可观”. 从1860年起作“比较好”.

运动意义上的(fair ball , fair catch 等) 1856年开始出现. Fair play 是来自1590年代, 但不是最初的体育(早期它的意思是“愉快的娱乐”, 14世纪, foul play 是“罪恶的娱乐” ). Fair-haired 在“darling, favorite” 的形象意义上, 是从1909年开始的. 首次记录了 fair-weather friends 是来自1736年(在当年出版的教皇的一封信中, 写于1730年). The fair sex “妇女” 来自1660年代, 来自“美丽” 的意义(fair, 作为一个名词, 意思是“一个女人”, 来自15世纪初). Fair game “合法目标” 来自1776年, 来自狩猎.

Others, who have not gone to such a height of audacious wickedness, have yet considered common prostitutes as fair game, which they might pursue without restraint. [“Advice from a Father to a Son, Just Entered into the Army and about to Go Abroad into Action,” London, 1776]

fair (n.)

“一个城镇或城市中的既定市场; 买卖或贸易的定期会议”, 14世纪初, 来自英法 feyre (13世纪末), 来自古法语 feire, faire “集市, 市场; 节日”, 来自古拉丁语 *feria “节日, 市场集市”, 来自拉丁语 feriae “宗教节日, 假日”, 与 festus “庄严, 喜庆, 欢乐” (见 feast (n.) )有关.

fair (adv.)

古英语 fæ gere “beautifulully”, 出自 fæ ger “beautiful” (见 fair (adj.) ). 14世纪起作“光荣地”; 14世纪中叶作“正确地; 直接地”; 1510年代起作“清楚地”. Fair and square 来自17世纪. Fair-to-middling 来自1829年, 牲畜市场的.

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Definitions of fair
1
fair (adj.)
attractively feminine;
the fair sex
fair (adj.)
free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules;
by fair means or foul
a fair fight
a fair referee
on a fair footing
fair deal
Synonyms: just
fair (adj.)
not excessive or extreme;
Synonyms: fairish / reasonable
fair (adj.)
very pleasing to the eye;
young fair maidens
Synonyms: bonny / bonnie / comely / sightly
fair (adj.)
(of a baseball) hit between the foul lines;
he hit a fair ball over the third base bag
fair (adj.)
lacking exceptional quality or ability;
only a fair performance of the sonata
in fair health
Synonyms: average / mediocre / middling
fair (adj.)
(of a manuscript) having few alterations or corrections;
fair copy
Synonyms: clean
fair (adj.)
gained or earned without cheating or stealing;
an fair penny
Synonyms: honest
fair (adj.)
free of clouds or rain;
today will be fair and warm
fair (adj.)
(used of hair or skin) pale or light-colored;
a fair complexion
Synonyms: fairish
2
fair (n.)
a traveling show; having sideshows and rides and games of skill etc.;
Synonyms: carnival / funfair
fair (n.)
gathering of producers to promote business;
trade fair
book fair
world fair
fair (n.)
a competitive exhibition of farm products;
she won a blue ribbon for her baking at the county fair
fair (n.)
a sale of miscellany; often for charity;
Synonyms: bazaar
3
fair (adv.)
in conformity with the rules or laws and without fraud or cheating;
Synonyms: fairly / clean
fair (adv.)
without favoring one party, in a fair evenhanded manner;
Synonyms: fairly / evenhandedly
4
fair (v.)
join so that the external surfaces blend smoothly;
From wordnet.princeton.edu