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die (v.)

12世纪中叶, dien, deighen, 有生命的人, “停止生存”, 可能来自古丹麦语 døja, 或古北欧语 deyja “死亡, 逝去”, 都来自古日耳曼语 *dawjan (也是古弗里斯兰语 deja “杀死”, 古撒克逊语 doian 的来源. 古高德文 touwen, 哥特文 diwans “凡人” ), 来自PIE词根 *dheu- (3) “逝去, 死亡, 变得毫无知觉” (来源也是古爱尔兰文 dith “结束, 死亡”, 古教会斯拉夫文 daviti, 俄语 davit' “窒息, 痛苦” ).

有人推测古英语有 *diegan, 来源相同, 但在现存的文本中都没有, 喜欢用的词是 steorfan (见 starve), sweltan (见 swelter), wesan dead (“成为死人” ), 也有 forðgan 等委婉语.

语言通常不会借用国外的词语来表达中心生活经验, 但“死” 字是个例外, 它们往往是出于迷信的恐惧而被隐藏或委婉地改变的. 荷兰语的一个委婉词翻译为“把烟斗给马腾”.

在15世纪之前, 常被拼写为 dege, 在兰开夏郡和苏格兰的一些人仍然读作“dee”. 对植物来说, “变得衰败, 枯萎”, 14世纪末; 在一般意义上, “走到尽头”, 从13世纪中叶开始 意为“被巨大的渴望或向往所消耗” (如 dying to go) 是口语, 从1709年开始. 从1580年代开始形象地用于(声音等); 以 die away “渐渐减少” 是1670年的. 要 die down “消退” 是到1834年. 相关链接: Died; dies.

die out “灭绝” 是从1865年开始的. 要 die game “将大胆, 果断, 不屈不挠的精神保持到底” (尤其是面对绞刑架的人) 出自1793年. 词条 never say die “不要放弃或在” 是到1822年, 最早的语境是水手的行话.

“Never look so cloudy about it messmate,” the latter continued in an unmoved tone—“Cheer up man, the rope is not twisted for your neck yet. Jack's alive; who's for a row? Never say die while there's a shot in the locker. Whup;” [Gerald Griffin, “Card Drawing,” 1842]

die (n.)

“小立方体, 每面标有一至六号的斑点, 用于博弈.” 14世纪初(为复数, 14世纪末为单数), 来自古法语 de “die, 骰子”, 来源不明. 常见罗马语(同源词. 西班牙文, 葡萄牙文, 意大利文 dado, 普罗旺斯文 dat, 加泰罗尼亚文 dau), 可能来自拉丁文 datum “给定”, dare “给定” 的过去分词(来自PIE词根 *do- “给定” ), 除了“给定”, 还有一个次要的意义是“下棋” (作为棋子); 否则这个概念就是“给定的东西” (偶然或财富).

对面的数字加起来总是7, 否则就没有统一的排列方式. “雕刻的冲压块或用于冲压较软材料的工具” 的意义是来自1690年代. 也许是由于它们经常成对使用(在两面都打上印记, 如硬币的印记) 而得名. 形象化的短语 the die is cast “决定性的茎被拿走了” 来自1630年代, 指的是掷骰子.

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Definitions of die
1
die (v.)
pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life;
She died from cancer
Synonyms: decease / perish / go / exit / pass away / expire / pass / kick the bucket / cash in one's chips / buy the farm / conk / give-up the ghost / drop dead / pop off / choke / croak / snuff it
die (v.)
suffer or face the pain of death;
Martyrs may die every day for their faith
die (v.)
be brought to or as if to the point of death by an intense emotion such as embarrassment, amusement, or shame;
We almost died laughing during the show
I was dying with embarrassment when my little lie was discovered
die (v.)
stop operating or functioning;
The car died on the road
Synonyms: fail / go bad / give way / give out / conk out / go / break / break down
die (v.)
feel indifferent towards;
She died to worldly things and eventually entered a monastery
die (v.)
languish as with love or desire;
She dying for a cigarette
I was dying to leave
die (v.)
cut or shape with a die;
Synonyms: die out
die (v.)
to be on base at the end of an inning, of a player;
die (v.)
lose sparkle or bouquet;
Synonyms: pall / become flat
die (v.)
disappear or come to an end;
My secret will die with me!
Their anger died
die (v.)
suffer spiritual death; be damned (in the religious sense);
Whosoever..believes in me shall never die
2
die (n.)
a small cube with 1 to 6 spots on the six faces; used in gambling to generate random numbers;
Synonyms: dice
die (n.)
a device used for shaping metal;
die (n.)
a cutting tool that is fitted into a diestock and used for cutting male (external) screw threads on screws or bolts or pipes or rods;
From wordnet.princeton.edu