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desert (v.)

17世纪 ,转义,"离开、放弃",无论是好的还是坏的意思;1640年代,在指兵役或职责时,"擅自离开";来自法语 déserter "造成离开",字面意思是"撤消或切断联系",来自拉丁语晚期 desertare ,频繁使用拉丁语 deserere "放弃、离开、抛弃、放弃、落荒而逃",来自 de "撤消"(见 de- )+ serere "连在一起,排成一排"(来自PIE词根 *ser- (2)"排成一排")。"擅自退出(服务或岗位)"的不经意意义来自1680年代。相关链接: Deserted ; deserting .

desert (n.1)

13世纪 ,"荒地、荒野、不毛之地",有无树木,来自古法语 desert ( 12世纪)"沙漠、荒野、荒地;毁灭、废墟",直接来自晚期拉丁语 desertum (意大利语 diserto ,古普罗旺斯语 dezert ,西班牙语 desierto ),字面意思是"被遗弃的东西"(在武加特语中用于翻译"荒野"),名词使用拉丁语 deserere "forsake"的中性过去分词(见 desert (v.))。

"无水、无树的相当范围的地区"的意义在中古英语中,逐渐成为主要意思。古典拉丁语用 desertadesertus 的复数表示这个意思。18世纪常见的拼写是 desart ,这是不对称的,但它避免了与该词的其他两种意义相混淆。

Every important worker will report what life there is in him. It makes no odds into what seeming deserts the poet is born. Though all his neighbors pronounce it a Sahara, it will be a paradise to him; for the desert which we see is the result of the barrenness of our experience. [Thoreau, Journal, May 6, 1854]

desert (n.2)

14世纪 ,"因一个人的行为而应得到某种待遇(好的或坏的)的事实",来自古法语 deserte "merit,recompense",名词使用 deservir "be worthy to have"的过去分词,最终来自拉丁文 deservire "service well",来自 de- "completely"(见 de- )+ servire "to serve"(见 serve (v.))。意思是"合适的奖赏或惩罚,一个人应得的"(现在通常是复数,并与 just ),来自14世纪末。

desert (adj.)

13世纪中叶,"荒芜的、未开垦的、浪费的、贫瘠的、非生产性的",来自古法语 desert 和拉丁语 desertum (见 desert (n.1))。意思是"与沙漠有关或属于沙漠",来自1630年代。 Desert island ,无人居住的,来自17世纪。

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Definitions of desert from WordNet
1
desert (v.)
leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch;
The mother deserted her children
Synonyms: abandon / forsake / desolate
desert (v.)
desert (a cause, a country or an army), often in order to join the opposing cause, country, or army;
If soldiers deserted Hitler's army, they were shot
Synonyms: defect
desert (v.)
leave behind;
the students deserted the campus after the end of exam period
2
desert (n.)
arid land with little or no vegetation;
desert (n.)
(usually plural) a person's deservingness of or entitlement to reward or punishment;
From wordnet.princeton.edu