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depression (n.)

15世纪作为天文学术语, “恒星在地平线下的角距离”, 来自古法语 depression (14世纪), 直接来自中世纪拉丁语 depressionem (名词 depressio), 行动名词来自拉丁语 deprimere 的过去分词干“压下, 压下” (见 depress).

字面意义“压下的行为, 被压下的状态” 是从1650年代开始被证实的. 沮丧, 悲伤的状态, 精神下沉“的意思是来自15世纪早期(作为心理学的临床术语, 从1905年开始); 气象学的意义是来自1881年(参考气压); 意思是” 经济活动的降低或减少“是在1826年使用; 到1934年被赋予一个特定的应用(与大写的 D-), 到1929年开始在全球范围内. 对于” 忧郁, 抑郁“, 一个古英语单词是 grevoushede.

A melancholy leading to desperation, and known to theologians under the name of 'acedia, ' was not uncommon in monasteries, and most of the recorded instances of medieval suicides in Catholicism were by monks. [Lecky,” History of European Morals“]

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Definitions of depression from WordNet
1
depression (n.)
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity;
depression (n.)
a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment;
Synonyms: slump / economic crisis
depression (n.)
a sunken or depressed geological formation;
Synonyms: natural depression
depression (n.)
sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy;
depression (n.)
an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation;
Synonyms: low
depression (n.)
a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention;
Synonyms: depressive disorder / clinical depression
depression (n.)
a concavity in a surface produced by pressing;
Synonyms: impression / imprint
depression (n.)
angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object);
depression (n.)
pushing down;
depression of the space bar on the typewriter
2
Depression (n.)
a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment;
Synonyms: Great Depression
From wordnet.princeton.edu