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depression (n.)

15世纪作为天文学术语,"恒星在地平线下的角距离",来自古法语 depression (14世纪),直接来自中世纪拉丁语 depressionem (名词 depressio ),行动名词来自拉丁语 deprimere 的过去分词干"压下,压下"(见 depress )。

字面意义"压下的行为,被压下的状态"是从1650年代开始被证实的。沮丧,悲伤的状态,精神下沉"的意思是来自15世纪早期(作为心理学的临床术语,从1905年开始);气象学的意义是来自1881年(参考气压);意思是"经济活动的降低或减少"是在1826年使用;到1934年被赋予一个特定的应用(与大写的 D- ),到1929年开始在全球范围内。对于"忧郁、抑郁",一个古英语单词是 grevoushede

A melancholy leading to desperation, and known to theologians under the name of 'acedia,' was not uncommon in monasteries, and most of the recorded instances of medieval suicides in Catholicism were by monks. [Lecky, "History of European Morals"]

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Definitions of depression from WordNet
1
depression (n.)
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity;
depression (n.)
a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment;
Synonyms: slump / economic crisis
depression (n.)
a sunken or depressed geological formation;
Synonyms: natural depression
depression (n.)
sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy;
depression (n.)
an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation;
Synonyms: low
depression (n.)
a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention;
Synonyms: depressive disorder / clinical depression
depression (n.)
a concavity in a surface produced by pressing;
Synonyms: impression / imprint
depression (n.)
angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object);
depression (n.)
pushing down;
depression of the space bar on the typewriter
2
Depression (n.)
a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment;
Synonyms: Great Depression
From wordnet.princeton.edu