community (n.)

14世纪末, “因居住在同一地点而联系在一起的一些人”, 也是“普通人” (不是统治者或神职人员), 来自古法语 comunité “社区, 共同性, 大家” (现代法语 communauté), 来自拉丁语 communitatem (名词 communitas) “社区, 社会, 友谊, 友好的交往; 礼貌, 屈尊, 亲和”, 来自 communis “共同的, 公共的, 一般的, 由所有人或许多人共享的” (见 common (adj.) ).

拉丁文 communitatem “只是一个质量名词. .. .. .意思是'友情, 关系或感情的共同体'” [OED], 但在中世纪的拉丁文中, 它开始被具体用来指“一个社会, 一个人的分工”. 在英语中, “共同拥有或享受” 的意思是从15世纪. “具有共同利益或职业的人的社会或协会” 的意义也是来自15世纪.

古英语中的“社区” 一词是 gemænscipe “社区, 联谊, 联盟, 共同拥有”, 来自 mæne “共同的, 公共的, 一般的”, 因此可能与 communis “社区” 是由相同的PIE词根构成的. 中古英语也有 commonty (14世纪末) “普通人; 一个社区”, 后来也有“共同持有的土地” 的意思(17世纪).

Community service 作为刑事判决的记录是从1972年开始, 美国英语. Community college ,, 提供适合当地需要和兴趣的中学后教育的学校, 记录于1947年, 美国英语. Community chest “fund made up of individual donations to meet the needs of charity and social welfare in a community” is from 1919, American English.

The Community Chest is a device to consolidate all these separate [charitable] appeals, and go before the people once a year with a budget which appropriates to each organization the amount which it needs to make up the difference between its income from other sources, and its necessary expenses. By this means not only are the charities relieved of financial worry and adequately supported, but the public is spared the irritation of constant solicitation, which is all the more unbusinesslike because it is decentralized and not subject to outside disinterested scrutiny. [“New Jersey Municipalities,” December 1919]
Origin and meaning of community

updated on October 13, 2021