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comedy (n.)

14世纪晚期, “有圆满结局的叙事. 任何旨在娱乐的作品,” 来自古法语 comedie (14世纪), “一首诗” (不是戏剧意义上的), 直接来自拉丁文 comoedia, 来自希腊文 kōmōidia “喜剧, 有趣的场面”, 可能[Beekes]来自 kōmōidos “狂欢中的演员或歌手”, 来自 kōmos “狂欢, 狂欢, 欢乐, 节日” + aoidos “歌手, 诗人”, 来自 aeidein “唱歌”, 这与 ōidē 有关(见 ode).

The passage on the nature of comedy in the Poetic of Aristotle is unfortunately lost, but if we can trust stray hints on the subject, his definition of comedy (which applied mainly to Menander) ran parallel to that of tragedy, and described the art as a purification of certain affections of our nature, not by terror and pity, but by laughter and ridicule. [Rev. J. P. Mahaffy, “A History of Classical Greek Literature,” London, 1895]

希腊文 komos 的起源不确定, 也许它来自于PIE *komso- “赞美”, 与梵文 samsa “赞美, 判断” 同源. Beekes建议是前希腊语. 古代从 kome “村落” 衍化而来, 现在不被看好.

该词的古典意义是“有快乐结局的有趣的戏剧或表演”, 这与现代意义相似, 但在中世纪, 该词一般指诗歌和故事(尽管是有快乐结局的), 如但丁的 “Commedia.”, 16世纪学问的复兴恢复了古代喜剧, 并将该词的意义转向“主要解决幽默和可笑的戏剧分支” (反对 tragedy). 在18世纪, 这在某种程度上被限制为“幽默的, 但不是严重滑稽的戏剧” (反对 farce).

Comedy aims at entertaining by the fidelity with which it presents life as we know it, farce at raising laughter by the outrageous absurdity of the situation or characters exhibited, & burlesque at tickling the fancy of the audience by caricaturing plays or actors with whose style it is familiar. [Fowler]

意思是“喜剧或戏剧” 是1550年代的(据说第一部现代英语喜剧是尼古拉斯-乌达尔的《罗斯特-多斯特》). 扩展意义“生活中的幽默或喜剧事件或事件” 来自1560年代. 广义的“有趣的质量” 可追溯到1877年.

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Definitions of comedy

comedy (n.)
light and humorous drama with a happy ending;
comedy (n.)
a comic incident or series of incidents;
Synonyms: drollery / clowning / funniness
From wordnet.princeton.edu