Advertisement

civil (adj.)

14世纪晚期,"与民法或生活有关;与国家内部事务有关",来自古法语 civil "civil,与民法有关"(13世纪),直接来自拉丁文 civilis "与社会有关,与公共生活有关,与公民秩序有关,与公民相称",因此引申为"受欢迎、和蔼可亲、彬彬有礼;" civis "townman"(见 city )的替代形容词派生词。

意为"不野蛮、文明",出自1550年代。具体到1610年代"与世俗组织的联邦有关"(与 militaryecclesiastical )。意为"与公民与联邦或同胞的关系有关"也是1610年代的。

The word civil has about twelve different meanings; it is applied to all manner of objects, which are perfectly disparate. As opposed to criminal , it means all law not criminal. As opposed to ecclesiastical, it means all law not ecclesiastical: as opposed to military, it means all law not military, and so on. [John Austin, "Lectures on Jurisprudence," 1873]

"礼貌"的意义是在古典拉丁语中,但英语直到16世纪末才拾起这个词的这一细微差别,它的意义已趋向于下降到"符合礼貌的最低标准"。" Courteous 因此, 更多的是对上级说的, civil 对下级说的,因为它意味着或暗示了不礼貌或无礼的可能性"[OED]。

Civil , literally, applies to one who fulfills the duty of a citizen; It may mean simply not rude, or observant of the external courtesies of intercourse, or quick to do and say gratifying and complimentary things. ...   Courteous , literally, expresses that style of politeness which belongs to courts: a courteous man is one who is gracefully respectful in his address and manner — one who exhibits a union of dignified complaisance and kindness. The word applies to all sincere kindness and attention. [Century Dictionary, 1895]

Civil case (而不是 criminal )是1610年代的记录。 Civil liberty "自然自由只受法律约束,只要对公共利益有必要"是1640年代的事。

Others are reading

Advertisement
Definitions of civil from WordNet

civil (adj.)
applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military;
civil authorities
civil (adj.)
not rude; marked by satisfactory (or especially minimal) adherence to social usages and sufficient but not noteworthy consideration for others; "even if he didn't like them he should have been civil"- W.S. Maugham;
Synonyms: polite
civil (adj.)
of or occurring within the state or between or among citizens of the state;
civil disobedience
civil strife
civil branches of government
civil affairs
civil (adj.)
of or relating to or befitting citizens as individuals;
civil rights
civil liberty
Synonyms: civic
civil (adj.)
(of divisions of time) legally recognized in ordinary affairs of life;
a civil day begins at mean midnight
the civil calendar
civil (adj.)
of or in a condition of social order;
civil peoples
From wordnet.princeton.edu