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case (n.1)

13世纪初, “降临的东西; 事态”, 来自古法语 cas “事件, 发生, 情况, 争吵, 审判”, 来自拉丁语 casus “机会, 场合, 机遇; 事故, 不幸”, 字面意思是“坠落”, 来自 cas-, 过去分词干 cadere “坠落, 沉沦, 安顿, 衰落, 灭亡” (广泛用于:天体的设置, 特洛伊的陷落, 自杀), 来自PIE根 *kad- “坠落”.

概念是把“落下的” 当作“发生的” (比较 befall). 从其一般性质来看, 该词具有广泛的扩展和转移的意义. 意为“实例, 榜样” 从14世纪. 意思是“实际的状态” 是从15世纪开始的. 在法律上, “诉讼的实例” (14世纪末); 在医学上, “疾病的实例” (14世纪末).

语法意义上, “构成名词转折的形式之一” (14世纪末) 也是在拉丁语中, 翻译希腊文 ptōsis “declension”, 字面意思是“下降”. “一个名词用名词单数. .. .. ., 或一个动词用现在的指示性.

被认为是站直的. 那么它 falls, 或 is bent, 或

declines, 进入各种阵地” [吉尔伯特-默里, 《希腊研究》].

美国俚语, 意为“人” (尤其是在任何方面都很奇特或了不起的人), 是1848年的. 意为“需要警方调查的事件或一系列事件” 的是1838年的. In case “在事件中” 是从14世纪中叶开始记载的. Case-history 是来自1879年, 原为医学. case-study “特定案件的研究” 来自1879年, 原为法律. case-law “由以前的法庭案件解决的法律” 是1861年的.

case (n.2)

“容器, 盒子, 包围或包含的东西”, 14世纪初, 来自英法和古北法语 casse (古法语 chasse “箱子, 遗物箱;” 现代法语 châsse), 来自拉丁语 capsa “盒子, 贮藏室” (特别是用于书籍), 来自 capere “拿, 拿住” (来自PIE根 *kap- “抓住” ).

意为“外层保护罩”, 来自14世纪末 也从1660年代开始使用, 有“框” 的意义(如 staircase, casement). 炮制意义是从1660年代开始的, 从 case-shot “放在箱子里的小弹丸” (1620年代). 它在印刷业中的应用(最早记录于1580年代) 是指两个浅浅的木质托盘, 作曲家将其字体放在隔间里, 以便于取用, 这导致了“小弹丸” 的出现. upper-case 用于大写字母(1862年), 因其在作曲家的斜面工作台上的位置较高而得名, 以及 lower-case 为小字.

The cases, or receptacles, for the type, which are always in pairs, and termed the 'upper' and the 'lower, ' are formed of two oblong wooden frames, divided into compartments or boxes of different dimensions, the upper case containing ninety-eight and the lower fifty-four. In the upper case are placed the capital, small capital, and accented letters, also figures, signs for reference to notes & c. ; in the lower case the ordinary running letter, points for punctuation, spaces for separating the words, and quadrats for filling up the short lines. [The Literary Gazette, Jan. 29, 1859]

case (v.)

“围在箱子里”, 1570年代, 来自 case (n. 2). 相关: Cased; casing.

意为“检查, 视察” (通常是在抢劫之前), 来自1915年, 美国英语俚语, 也许是来自给一个地方四面看的概念. 比较技术 case (v.) “用不同的材料覆盖建筑物的外面” (1707年), 来自 case (n.) “建筑物的外部部分” (1670年代).

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Definitions of case from WordNet
1
case (n.)
an occurrence of something;
it was a case of bad judgment
Synonyms: instance / example
case (n.)
a special set of circumstances;
it may rain in which case the picnic will be canceled
Synonyms: event
case (n.)
a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy;
Synonyms: lawsuit / suit / cause / causa
case (n.)
the actual state of things;
that was not the case
case (n.)
a portable container for carrying several objects;
the musicians left their instrument cases backstage
case (n.)
a person requiring professional services;
a typical case was the suburban housewife described by a marriage counselor
case (n.)
a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation;
the cases that we studied were drawn from two different communities
Synonyms: subject / guinea pig
case (n.)
a problem requiring investigation;
Perry Mason solved the case of the missing heir
case (n.)
a statement of facts and reasons used to support an argument;
he stated his case clearly
case (n.)
the quantity contained in a case;
Synonyms: caseful
case (n.)
nouns or pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence;
Synonyms: grammatical case
case (n.)
a specific state of mind that is temporary;
a case of the jitters
case (n.)
a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities);
a mental case
Synonyms: character / eccentric / type
case (n.)
a specific size and style of type within a type family;
Synonyms: font / fount / typeface / face
case (n.)
an enveloping structure or covering enclosing an animal or plant organ or part;
Synonyms: sheath
case (n.)
the housing or outer covering of something;
the clock has a walnut case
Synonyms: shell / casing
case (n.)
the enclosing frame around a door or window opening;
Synonyms: casing
case (n.)
(printing) the receptacle in which a compositor has his type, which is divided into compartments for the different letters, spaces, or numbers;
for English, a compositor will ordinarily have two such cases, the upper case containing the capitals and the lower case containing the small letters
Synonyms: compositor's case / typesetter's case
case (n.)
bed linen consisting of a cover for a pillow;
Synonyms: pillowcase / slip / pillow slip
case (n.)
a glass container used to store and display items in a shop or museum or home;
Synonyms: display case / showcase / vitrine
2
case (v.)
look over, usually with the intention to rob;
They men cased the housed
case (v.)
enclose in, or as if in, a case;
Synonyms: encase / incase
From wordnet.princeton.edu