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call (v.)

13世纪中叶, “呼喊; 呼唤, 召唤, 调用; 请求, 要求, 命令; 赋予名称, 以指定的方式应用”, 来自古北欧语 kalla “大声呼喊, 大声召唤; 命名, 以名字呼唤”, 来自古日耳曼语 *kall- (也是中荷兰语 kallen “说话, 说, 告诉”, 荷兰语 kallen “交谈, 喋喋不休”, 古高德语 kallon “大声说话, 呼唤” 的来源), 来自PIE根 *gal- “呼唤, 喊叫”. 相关: Called; calling.

古英语的同源词 ceallian “高声呼喊, 大声说出” 的情况很少见, 通常的词是 clipian (来源中英语 clepe, yclept). 掷硬币意义是1801年的; 玩牌意义“要求出示手牌” 是1670年代的; 扑克意义“匹配或加注” 是到1889年的. “短暂停留或拜访” (中英) 的意思是“站在门口打电话”. 电话意义是1882年起.

call for “需求, 要求” 是从1530年代开始的(更早在这个意义上是 call after, 15世纪). 要 call (something) back “撤销” 是1550年代的. 要 call (something) off “取消” 是到1888年; 更早的 call off 意为“召唤走, 转移” (1630年代). 要 call (someone) names 是1590年代的. 要 call out 有人打(1823年) 对应法语 provoquer. 对 call it a night “上床” 是1919年的.

call (n.)

14世纪初, “响亮的叫声, 呼喊”, 也有“传唤, 邀请” 的意思, 出自 call (v.). 从1580年代起作“传唤” (用号角, 鼓等) 军人执行某种任务; 从1680年代起作“鸟的叫声或音符”. “短暂的正式访问” 的意义来自1862年; “用电话沟通” 的意义来自1878年. 从1670年代起作“要求, 义务, 权利”, 因此, 通俗地说, 就是“场合, 原因”.

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Definitions of call
1
call (v.)
assign a specified (usually proper) proper name to;
Synonyms: name / know as / be known as
call (v.)
ascribe a quality to or give a name of a common noun that reflects a quality;
She called her children lazy and ungrateful
He called me a bastard
call (v.)
get or try to get into communication (with someone) by telephone;
I tried to call you all night
Take two aspirin and call me in the morning
Synonyms: telephone / call up / phone / ring
call (v.)
utter a sudden loud cry;
Synonyms: shout / shout out / cry / yell / scream / holler / hollo / squall
call (v.)
order, request, or command to come;
She was called into the director's office
Synonyms: send for
call (v.)
pay a brief visit;
The mayor likes to call on some of the prominent citizens
Synonyms: visit / call in
call (v.)
call a meeting; invite or command to meet;
The Wannsee Conference was called to discuss the `Final Solution'
The new dean calls meetings every week
call (v.)
read aloud to check for omissions or absentees;
call (v.)
send a message or attempt to reach someone by radio, phone, etc.; make a signal to in order to transmit a message;
A transmitter in Samoa was heard calling
Hawaii is calling!
call (v.)
utter a characteristic note or cry;
bluejays called to one another
call (v.)
stop or postpone because of adverse conditions, such as bad weather;
call a football game
call (v.)
greet, as with a prescribed form, title, or name;
She calls him by first name
Synonyms: address
call (v.)
make a stop in a harbour;
The ship will call in Honolulu tomorrow
call (v.)
demand payment of (a loan);
Synonyms: call in
call (v.)
make a demand, as for a card or a suit or a show of hands;
He called his trump
Synonyms: bid
call (v.)
give the calls (to the dancers) for a square dance;
Synonyms: call off
call (v.)
indicate a decision in regard to;
call balls and strikes behind the plate
call (v.)
make a prediction about; tell in advance;
call (v.)
require the presentation of for redemption before maturation;
call (v.)
challenge (somebody) to make good on a statement; charge with or censure for an offense;
He deserves to be called on that
call (v.)
declare in the capacity of an umpire or referee;
call a runner out
call (v.)
lure by imitating the characteristic call of an animal;
call (v.)
order or request or give a command for;
The unions called a general strike for Sunday
call (v.)
order, summon, or request for a specific duty or activity, work, role;
He was already called 4 times for jury duty
They called him to active military duty
call (v.)
utter in a loud voice or announce;
He called my name
The auctioneer called the bids
call (v.)
challenge the sincerity or truthfulness of;
call the speaker on a question of fact
call (v.)
consider or regard as being;
I would not call her beautiful
call (v.)
rouse somebody from sleep with a call;
I was called at 5 A.M. this morning
2
call (n.)
a telephone connection;
she reported several anonymous calls
he heard the phone ringing but didn't want to take the call
he placed a phone call to London
Synonyms: phone call / telephone call
call (n.)
a loud utterance; often in protest or opposition;
Synonyms: cry / outcry / yell / shout / vociferation
call (n.)
a demand especially in the phrase "the call of duty";
Synonyms: claim
call (n.)
the characteristic sound produced by a bird;
Synonyms: birdcall / birdsong / song
call (n.)
a brief social visit;
senior professors' wives no longer make afternoon calls on newcomers
the characters in Henry James' novels are forever paying calls on each other, usually in the parlor of some residence
call (n.)
a demand by a broker that a customer deposit enough to bring his margin up to the minimum requirement;
Synonyms: margin call
call (n.)
a demand for a show of hands in a card game;
after two raises there was a call
call (n.)
a request;
many calls for Christmas stories
not many calls for buggywhips
call (n.)
an instruction that interrupts the program being executed;
Pascal performs calls by simply giving the name of the routine to be executed
call (n.)
a visit in an official or professional capacity;
the pastor's calls on his parishioners
the salesman's call on a customer
call (n.)
(sports) the decision made by an umpire or referee;
he was ejected for protesting the call
call (n.)
the option to buy a given stock (or stock index or commodity future) at a given price before a given date;
Synonyms: call option
3
Call (n.)
a special disposition (as if from a divine source) to pursue a particular course;
From wordnet.princeton.edu