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black (adj.)

古英语 blæc “绝对黑暗, 吸收所有的光, 烟灰或煤的颜色”, 来自于原日耳曼语 *blakaz “烧毁” (来源也是古北欧语 blakkr “黑暗”, 古高德语 blah “黑色”, 瑞典语 bläck “墨水”, 荷兰语 blaken “燃烧” ), 来自于PIE *bhleg- “燃烧, 闪光, 闪耀” (来源也是希腊语 phlegein “燃烧, 焦灼”, 拉丁语 flagrare “炽热, 发光, 燃烧” ), 来自于根 *bhel- (1) “闪耀, 闪光, 燃烧”.

同一个词根产生了古英语 blac “明亮, 闪耀, 闪光, 苍白”; 连接的概念也许是“火” (明亮) 和“燃烧” (黑暗), 也许是“没有颜色”. “没有什么比指定颜色的词的符号更多变的了” [Hensleigh Wedgwood, “A Dictionary of English Etymology,” 1859].

通常古英语的“黑” 字是 sweart (见 swart). 根据OED的说法. “在ME. 经常有疑问的是, blac, blak, blake, 是指” 黑色, 黑暗“还是” 苍白, 无色, 苍白, 生动“.” 在古英语中用于黑皮肤的人.

1796年证明的无添加的咖啡. Black drop (1823年) 是鸦片的液体制剂, 药用. Black-fly (17世纪) 是用来对付各种昆虫的, 特别是美国北部森林中一种恼人的害虫. Black Prince 15世纪60年代, 爱德华三世长子的绰号“爱德华” 被证实为“爱德华”; 确切的含义不确定.

意思是“凶猛, 可怕, 邪恶”, 来自14世纪晚期 形象化的意义往往来自“无光” 的概念, 道德的或精神的. 拉丁文 niger, 也有许多同样的形象意义(“阴暗的; 不吉利的; 坏的, 邪恶的, 恶意的” ). 然而, 希腊语 melas, 其隐喻用法往往反映了“笼罩在黑暗中, 阴天” 的概念. 在英语中, 它至少从14世纪起就成了罪恶和悲伤的颜色; “具有黑暗目的, 恶毒” 的意义出现在1580年代(在 black art “巫术”; 也是 black magic). Black flag “忧郁”, 作为“不留情面” 的信号(尤其是海盗), 是1590年代的事. Black dog “忧郁” 证自1826年.

Black belt 忧郁“来自1870年, 指美国南部非洲人口最多的地区(有时也指土壤的肥沃程度); 1913年在柔道的意义上被证实, 由达到一定高度熟练的人佩戴. Black power 是1966年的, 与斯托克利-卡迈克尔有关. Black English” 非裔美国人说的英语“, 是到1969年. 的. Black Panther 1965年) 运动是学生非暴力协调委员会的产物. Black studies 是从1968年开始证明的.

Origin and meaning of black

black (v.)

13世纪, 本义, “变成黑色;” 14世纪初, 本义, “使黑色, 变黑, 涂上黑色;” 来自 black (adj.). 尤其是“把(靴子, 鞋子等) 涂黑, 刷亮” (1550年代). 相关链接: Blacked; blacking.

black (n.)

古英语 blæc “黑色的颜色”, 也有“墨色”, 出自名词用法 black (形容词). 来自14世纪末, 作“眼瞳中的黑斑”. 意为“皮肤黝黑的人, 非洲人”, 出自1620年代(也许是13世纪末, blackamoor, 出自1540年代). 意为“黑色的衣服” (尤其是服丧时穿的) 是15世纪的.

意思是“在 black-and-white 意思是在书写或印刷中, 是来自1650年代(white-and-black 是来自1590年代); 这个概念是白纸上的黑色字符. 在视觉艺术中,” 除了黑和白, 没有其他颜色“, 它是由1870年的素描, 1883年的照片. 要 in the black (1922年) 来自于用黑色墨水记录贷方和余额的会计惯例.

For years it has been a common practice to use red ink instead of black in showing a loss or deficit on corporate books, but not until the heavy losses of 1921 did the contrast in colors come to have a widely understood meaning. [Saturday Evening Post, July 22, 1922]

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Definitions of black
1
black (adj.)
being of the achromatic color of maximum darkness; having little or no hue owing to absorption of almost all incident light;
rich black soil
black leather jackets
as black as coal
black (adj.)
of or belonging to a racial group especially of sub-Saharan African origin; "a great people--a black people--...injected new meaning and dignity into the veins of civilization"- Martin Luther King Jr.;
black (adj.)
marked by anger or resentment or hostility;
black looks
black words
black (adj.)
offering little or no hope; "Life in the Aran Islands has always been bleak and difficult"- J.M.Synge;
the future looked black
Synonyms: bleak / dim
black (adj.)
stemming from evil characteristics or forces; wicked or dishonorable; "the scheme of some sinister intelligence bent on punishing him"-Thomas Hardy;
a black lie
black deeds
his black heart has concocted yet another black deed
Synonyms: dark / sinister
black (adj.)
(of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin; "such doctrines, if true, would be absolutely fatal to my theory"- Charles Darwin; "it is fatal to enter any war without the will to win it"- Douglas MacArthur;
black (adj.)
(of the face) made black especially as with suffused blood;
a face black with fury
Synonyms: blackened
black (adj.)
extremely dark;
a black moonless night
through the pitch-black woods
Synonyms: pitch-black / pitch-dark
black (adj.)
harshly ironic or sinister;
black humor
Synonyms: grim / mordant
black (adj.)
(of intelligence operations) deliberately misleading;
black propaganda
black (adj.)
distributed or sold illicitly;
the black economy pays no taxes
Synonyms: bootleg / black-market / contraband / smuggled
black (adj.)
(used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame; "Man...has written one of his blackest records as a destroyer on the oceanic islands"- Rachel Carson;
black (adj.)
(of coffee) without cream or sugar;
black (adj.)
soiled with dirt or soot;
with feet black from playing outdoors
his shirt was black within an hour
Synonyms: smutty
2
black (n.)
the quality or state of the achromatic color of least lightness (bearing the least resemblance to white);
Synonyms: blackness / inkiness
black (n.)
total absence of light;
in the black of night
Synonyms: total darkness / lightlessness / blackness / pitch blackness
black (n.)
(board games) the darker pieces;
black (n.)
black clothing (worn as a sign of mourning);
the widow wore black
3
black (v.)
make or become black;
Synonyms: blacken / melanize / melanise
4
Black (n.)
British chemist who identified carbon dioxide and who formulated the concepts of specific heat and latent heat (1728-1799);
Synonyms: Joseph Black
Black (n.)
popular child actress of the 1930's (born in 1928);
Synonyms: Shirley Temple Black / Shirley Temple
Black (n.)
a person with African ancestry, "Negro" and "Negroid" are archaic and pejorative today;
From wordnet.princeton.edu