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black (adj.)

古英语 blæc "绝对黑暗,吸收所有的光,烟灰或煤的颜色",来自于原日耳曼语 *blakaz "烧毁"(来源也是古北欧语 blakkr "黑暗",古高德语 blah "黑色",瑞典语 bläck "墨水",荷兰语 blaken "燃烧"),来自于PIE *bhleg- "燃烧、闪光、闪耀"(来源也是希腊语 phlegein "燃烧、焦灼",拉丁语 flagrare "炽热、发光、燃烧"),来自于根 *bhel- (1)"闪耀、闪光、燃烧"。

同一个词根产生了古英语 blac "明亮、闪耀、闪光、苍白";连接的概念也许是"火"(明亮)和"燃烧"(黑暗),也许是"没有颜色"。"没有什么比指定颜色的词的符号更多变的了"[Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859]。

通常古英语的"黑"字是 sweart (见 swart )。根据OED的说法。"在ME.经常有疑问的是, blac , blak , blake , 是指"黑色,黑暗"还是"苍白,无色,苍白,生动"。" 在古英语中用于黑皮肤的人。

1796年证明的无添加的咖啡。 Black drop (1823年)是鸦片的液体制剂,药用。 Black-fly (17世纪)是用来对付各种昆虫的,特别是美国北部森林中一种恼人的害虫。 Black Prince 15世纪60年代,爱德华三世长子的绰号"爱德华"被证实为"爱德华";确切的含义不确定。

意思是"凶猛、可怕、邪恶",来自14世纪晚期 形象化的意义往往来自"无光"的概念,道德的或精神的。拉丁文 niger ,也有许多同样的形象意义("阴暗的;不吉利的;坏的、邪恶的、恶意的")。然而,希腊语 melas ,其隐喻用法往往反映了"笼罩在黑暗中,阴天"的概念。在英语中,它至少从14世纪起就成了罪恶和悲伤的颜色;"具有黑暗目的、恶毒"的意义出现在1580年代(在 black art "巫术";也是 black magic )。 Black flag "忧郁",作为"不留情面"的信号(尤其是海盗),是1590年代的事。 Black dog "忧郁"证自1826年。

Black belt 忧郁"来自1870年,指美国南部非洲人口最多的地区(有时也指土壤的肥沃程度);1913年在柔道的意义上被证实,由达到一定高度熟练的人佩戴。 Black power 是1966年的,与斯托克利-卡迈克尔有关。 Black English "非裔美国人说的英语",是到1969年。的。 Black Panther 1965年)运动是学生非暴力协调委员会的产物。 Black studies 是从1968年开始证明的。

Origin and meaning of black

black (v.)

13世纪 ,本义,"变成黑色;"14世纪初,本义,"使黑色,变黑,涂上黑色;"来自 black ( adj.)。尤其是"把(靴子、鞋子等)涂黑、刷亮"(1550年代)。相关链接: Blacked ; blacking .

black (n.)

古英语 blæc "黑色的颜色",也有"墨色",出自名词用法 black (形容词)。来自14世纪末,作"眼瞳中的黑斑"。意为"皮肤黝黑的人,非洲人",出自1620年代(也许是13世纪末, blackamoor ,出自1540年代)。意为"黑色的衣服"(尤其是服丧时穿的)是15世纪的 。

意思是"在 black-and-white 意思是在书写或印刷中,是来自1650年代( white-and-black 是来自1590年代);这个概念是白纸上的黑色字符。在视觉艺术中,"除了黑和白,没有其他颜色",它是由1870年的素描,1883年的照片。要 in the black (1922年)来自于用黑色墨水记录贷方和余额的会计惯例。

For years it has been a common practice to use red ink instead of black in showing a loss or deficit on corporate books, but not until the heavy losses of 1921 did the contrast in colors come to have a widely understood meaning. [Saturday Evening Post, July 22, 1922]

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Definitions of black from WordNet
1
black (adj.)
being of the achromatic color of maximum darkness; having little or no hue owing to absorption of almost all incident light;
rich black soil
black leather jackets
as black as coal
black (adj.)
of or belonging to a racial group especially of sub-Saharan African origin; "a great people--a black people--...injected new meaning and dignity into the veins of civilization"- Martin Luther King Jr.;
black (adj.)
marked by anger or resentment or hostility;
black looks
black words
black (adj.)
offering little or no hope; "Life in the Aran Islands has always been bleak and difficult"- J.M.Synge;
the future looked black
Synonyms: bleak / dim
black (adj.)
stemming from evil characteristics or forces; wicked or dishonorable; "the scheme of some sinister intelligence bent on punishing him"-Thomas Hardy;
a black lie
black deeds
his black heart has concocted yet another black deed
Synonyms: dark / sinister
black (adj.)
(of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin; "such doctrines, if true, would be absolutely fatal to my theory"- Charles Darwin; "it is fatal to enter any war without the will to win it"- Douglas MacArthur;
black (adj.)
(of the face) made black especially as with suffused blood;
a face black with fury
Synonyms: blackened
black (adj.)
extremely dark;
a black moonless night
through the pitch-black woods
Synonyms: pitch-black / pitch-dark
black (adj.)
harshly ironic or sinister;
black humor
Synonyms: grim / mordant
black (adj.)
(of intelligence operations) deliberately misleading;
black propaganda
black (adj.)
distributed or sold illicitly;
the black economy pays no taxes
Synonyms: bootleg / black-market / contraband / smuggled
black (adj.)
(used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame; "Man...has written one of his blackest records as a destroyer on the oceanic islands"- Rachel Carson;
black (adj.)
(of coffee) without cream or sugar;
black (adj.)
soiled with dirt or soot;
with feet black from playing outdoors
his shirt was black within an hour
Synonyms: smutty
2
black (n.)
the quality or state of the achromatic color of least lightness (bearing the least resemblance to white);
Synonyms: blackness / inkiness
black (n.)
total absence of light;
in the black of night
Synonyms: total darkness / lightlessness / blackness / pitch blackness
black (n.)
(board games) the darker pieces;
black (n.)
black clothing (worn as a sign of mourning);
the widow wore black
3
black (v.)
make or become black;
Synonyms: blacken / melanize / melanise
4
Black (n.)
British chemist who identified carbon dioxide and who formulated the concepts of specific heat and latent heat (1728-1799);
Synonyms: Joseph Black
Black (n.)
popular child actress of the 1930's (born in 1928);
Synonyms: Shirley Temple Black / Shirley Temple
Black (n.)
a person with African ancestry, "Negro" and "Negroid" are archaic and pejorative today;
From wordnet.princeton.edu