1520年代, “斜线或对角线”, 来自法语 biais “一个斜面, 一个斜坡, 一个斜面”, 也可形象地说是“一个权宜之计, 手段” (13世纪, 原为古法语中的一个过去分词形容词, “侧身, 问心无愧, 逆来顺受” ), 这个词的来源不明. 可能它是从古普罗旺斯语 biais, 在古加泰罗尼亚语和撒丁语中有同源词, 可能是通过古拉丁语 *(e) bigassius, 从希腊语 epikarsios “athwart, crosswise, at an angle”, 从 epi “only” (见 epi-) + karsios “oblique” (从PIE *krs-yo-, 后缀形式的根 *sker- (1) “to cut” ).
在古老的保龄球游戏中, 它是一个技术术语, 用于指一侧重量较大的球(1560年代), 使它们向一侧弯曲; 因此, 形象地使用“心灵的片面倾向” (1570年代), 起初特别是在法律上, “不适当的倾向或偏见”.
The bias of education, the bias of class-relationships, the bias of nationality, the political bias, the theological bias—these, added to the constitutional sympathies and antipathies, have much more influence in determining beliefs on social questions than has the small amount of evidence collected. [Herbert Spencer, “The Study of Sociology,” 1873]
For what a man had rather were true he more readily believes. Therefore he rejects difficult things from impatience of research; sober things, because they narrow hope; the deeper things of nature, from superstition; the light of experience, from arrogance and pride, lest his mind should seem to be occupied with things mean and transitory; things not commonly believed, out of deference to the opinion of the vulgar. Numberless in short are the ways, and sometimes imperceptible, in which the affections colour and infect the understanding. [Francis Bacon, “Novum Organum,” 1620]
“给人以偏向, 使人倾向于一方”, 1610年代的字面意思; 1620年代的比喻; 来自 bias (n.). 比较法语 biasier. 相关链接: Biased; biasing.