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bear (v.)

古英语 beran "背负、带来;带出、生出、生产;不抵抗地忍受;支持、托起、维持;穿戴"(IV类强动词;过去时 bær ,过去分词 boren ),来自于原日耳曼语 *beranan (来源也是古撒克逊语 beran ,古弗里斯兰语 bera "承担、生出",中荷兰语 beren "背负孩子",古高德语 beran ,德语 gebären ,古北欧语 bera "背负、带来、承担、忍受。生,"哥特语 bairan "背负、承担、生下"),来自PIE根 *bher- (1)"背负负担,带来",也是"生下"(虽然只有英语和德语强烈保留了这个意义,俄语有 beremennaya "怀孕")。

古英语的过去式 bær 成为中英语 bare ;替代性的 bore 开始出现在15世纪,但 bare 一直到1600年以后仍是文学形式。过去分词的区别 borne 表示"携带", born 表示"生下",这是从 18 世纪末开始的。

很多感觉都是来自于"通过压力继续前进"的概念。从14世纪作为"拥有作为属性或特征"。"维持而不沉沦"的意思来自1520年代;以 bear (something) in mind 意思是"趋向,被引导(以某种方式)"是17世纪的。对 bear down "强行驶向"(特别是在航海中使用)是从1716年开始的。要 bear up 是来自1650年代,作为"坚定,有毅力"。

Origin and meaning of bear

bear (n.)

"大型肉食性或杂食性哺乳动物科 Ursidae ,"古英语 bera "一只熊",来自于原日耳曼语 *bero ,字面意思是"棕色的(一只)"(来源也是古北欧语 björn ,中荷兰语 bere ,荷兰语 beer ,古高德语 bero ,德语 Bär ),通常说来自于PIE根 *bher- (2)"明亮;棕色"。也许有一个PIE *bheros "深色动物"(比较 beaver (n.1)和希腊语 phrynos "蟾蜍",字面意思是"棕色的动物")。

希腊语 arktos 和拉丁语 ursus ,保留了"熊"的PIE词根( *rtko ; 见 arctic ),但由于猎人对野生动物名称的忌讳,人们认为它在北方分支中被礼节性地取代了(比较相当于爱尔兰语的"好牛犊",威尔士语的"蜜猪",立陶宛语的"舔食者",俄语 medved "食蜜者")。还有人将日耳曼语与拉丁文 ferus "野生"联系起来,好像是指"北方森林中的野生动物( par excellence )"。

1794年以来象征俄罗斯。自1570年代起用于形容粗鲁、粗暴、不礼貌的人。股市的意思是"投机者的下跌",是1709年的简称。 bearskin jobber (出自谚语 sell the bearskin before one has caught the bear );即"卖出股票以备将来交割的人,预期同时价格会下跌"。搭配 bull ,出自约1720年。 Bear claw 作为一种大饼是1942年起,原主要在美国西部。 Bear-garden (1590年代)是一个饲养熊的地方,供观众娱乐。

Origin and meaning of bear

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Definitions of bear from WordNet
1
bear (v.)
have;
bear a signature
bear a resemblance
bear (v.)
cause to be born;
Synonyms: give birth / deliver / birth / have
bear (v.)
put up with something or somebody unpleasant;
I cannot bear his constant criticism
Synonyms: digest / endure / stick out / stomach / stand / tolerate / support / brook / abide / suffer / put up
bear (v.)
move while holding up or supporting;
bear news
bearing orders
bear a heavy load
bear (v.)
bring forth;
The unidentified plant bore gorgeous flowers
The apple tree bore delicious apples this year
Synonyms: turn out
bear (v.)
take on as one's own the expenses or debts of another person;
She agreed to bear the responsibility
Synonyms: take over / accept / assume
bear (v.)
contain or hold; have within;
Synonyms: hold / carry / contain
bear (v.)
bring in;
interest-bearing accounts
Synonyms: yield / pay
bear (v.)
have on one's person;
bear a scar
Synonyms: wear
bear (v.)
behave in a certain manner;
he bore himself with dignity
Synonyms: behave / acquit / deport / conduct / comport / carry
bear (v.)
have rightfully; of rights, titles, and offices;
She bears the title of Duchess
Synonyms: hold
bear (v.)
support or hold in a certain manner;
Synonyms: hold / carry
bear (v.)
be pregnant with;
She is bearing his child
Synonyms: have a bun in the oven / carry / gestate / expect
2
bear (n.)
massive plantigrade carnivorous or omnivorous mammals with long shaggy coats and strong claws;
bear (n.)
an investor with a pessimistic market outlook; an investor who expects prices to fall and so sells now in order to buy later at a lower price;
From wordnet.princeton.edu